The Report Of The Visit Of The Delegation Of The World QPEDIA Encyclopedia To Sarat Abidah Governorate Part4

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Al-Alkhalaf:

In Al-Fath a village named after its inhabitants from Bani Bishr, it is located 26 kilometers south of Sarat  Abidah governorate, with elementary and middle schools for boys and girls, and a primary care center.

 

The village of Al-Khalaf is estimated to be five centuries old. It was subjected to the Turkish invasion, and the famous site between them and the Turks took place. The military ruler burned the village’s houses with artillery from the eastern side. Their leader at the time. The village buildings are defensive in nature, in terms of secrecy in the roads that penetrate the village and the towers. The village of Al-Khalaf is located on a plateau surrounded by agricultural fields to the west, east and north, and to the south by a very steep mountain. Among its prominent features: -

 

  • Distinguishing in construction, where we find the accuracy of implementation and durability, and the ability to withstand natural factors. The viewer notices the large size of the village, the height of its buildings and its complexity, and the multiplicity of its floors at a time when the engineering tools were not as they are today.
  • The presence of streets, alleys, and long vaults that penetrate the village length and width, and these passageways penetrate the side openings to reach the light.
  • 3- The number of towers therein, or what is called (the Kasbah), which is close to twenty towers, including the circular shape and the square shape, and its length exceeds thirty meters, and these towers are used for observation and providing protection for the tribe.
  • There are two ancient mosques, the first in the north of the village (Al Matar), and the second, the castle mosque, located in the south of the village, which is built of colored stones, and covered with wood and covered with (plaster) and there is in the yard of the mosque (Al-Sowh) a water pool, and it is provided with rain water through water channels.
  • There are archaeological burials, and historical tombs, as well as (UM Khurmah cave ), which is a large cave in the form of a dome consisting of several rooms carved into the rock, and it also has carved doors, and the entrance to the cave mediates several columns of alabaster, in addition to the presence of shelves and secret stores
  • It used to hold a weekly market every Friday, and it is one of the oldest weekly markets in the Asir region, located in a large area in the middle of the village.

 

Al Ajma:

 

Al-Ajmah is one of the villages of Al-Bassam, which is one of the ancient villages that have not been discovered yet. The researchers did not address it in terms of history, architecture and archeology. It is truly a living source of history, civilization and heritage. The Bassam family, five meters away from the center of Sarat  Abidah governorate, is on the road that connects the governorate with the southern Dhahran Governorate, which is the international road that links the Asir region with the Najran region and leads to the Arab Yemeni Republic. Because we rarely find it in the Asir region, as it is characterized by multiple roles, so that some of them reach five floors, and they are of traditional construction, linked with each other by what is called the shed, which facilitates the transition between its residents; and this method worked to protect, and to avoid the enemy that might lie in wait for them At night, as it is characterized by the flow of torrents, it was taken into account that during the construction it is taken into account that the disposal of torrents from the bottom of these buildings, and through traditional channels from the bottom of the buildings.

 

This village is characterized by the abundance of adjacent buildings in more than one place, as if they were typical  units, as it is called in modern architecture, and there is a mosque built in the modern style where the ruins of the old mosque were raised and the current mosque was established with an area equivalent to three times the old mosque, and with a capacity There is a larger absorption capacity, and the village has a primary and middle school for boys surrounding the village high mountains from the west, north and south, and from the mountains Jabal Al-Khattam, and Mount Aaron which is a mountain located on the western side and the mountain number is the highest point of the three largest valleys combined in the region, namely the Beesh Valley in the west And the Valley of Bisha in the north, and the Valley of Bisha in the east. Al-Ajma is also the center of the guest of the tribe, the center of its gathering and its collection, and the village has official entrances through which guests and non-guests receive. Special entrances to the people of the village use the tribal properties and when necessary. And the fact that the village is surrounded by mountains from three sides, when the rain falls, the village is exposed to the flow of strong torrents, especially from the north and west, and for this reason, surface channels have been created to distribute the torrents in the south and east in a way that guarantees their distribution to farms on both sides. The torrent is according to the agreed quotas, and the tribe is working to maintain and monitor it continuously. The village is also distinguished by the presence of the clan shed in the middle of the village between the houses and it is dedicated to storing the grains collected from the agricultural crops. It gives for every ten tidal supplies to the clan.

It is also distinguished by the presence of a spring of water originating from the western side at the bottom of Mount Haaron on its eastern side, and after the entrance to the spring of Al-Moain , which continues to the south. However, with the urban expansion in the modern era, and the random expansion. It changed many of the features of the nature of the earth, and led to the burial and interruption of this eye, and the Wadi Al Bassam consists of a number of ancient ancient villages, namely (the village of the streets and the village of Al-Ajamah and the village of Al-Hoss and the village of Al-Hassan) and each of these villages has its own character, And its own advantage. In the visit of the delegation of the QPedia  Encyclopedia to  Wadi Al-Bassam, the production of the stag staple of purebred Arab horses was examined, where a number of horse heads were produced, including the staple production (the horse is a kindergarten, an authentic Arab horse, the horse is Mazoon and its  son Zubair is the stapler, and the foal is Hamdan Al-Wasim Arabic Asil From the production of the stud, and from the stallion of the stud, rose Salman and Taya"

 

 

 

 

Sannan :

 

 The author of the island dictionary said: It is a mountain located in the emirate of Sarat  Abidah, which is bordered to the east by the villages of Awayreen, and from the west by the city of Sarat, and from the north by the mountain of Kafwa, and from the south by the villages of Wadi Al Bassam, east of Sarat  Abidah, a distance of (3) kilometers and mentioned by Al Hamdani _ When speaking about the side of Diab’s side _ He said: The village of the side of Al-Kubaiba is built by Bani Wa Qashah, and Al-Qurai'a by Bani Ubaidah and Sanan are not Sanan Kathaam , Professor Abdullah Al Naji  described (Sanan)   by  saying: Sanan is located 3 kilometers east of the city of Sarat  Abidah, and it is a mountainous land that is not suitable for housing and agriculture, and is a permanent  habitat for  Bedouins  and it belongs to some tribes of the Al-Saqr tribe from Ubaidah, and it has no traces of it Evidence that it was a village in the time of al-Hamdani, and it may have been a resting place for the pilgrims' caravans and the like, and the government has created - God's support - a dam on this site that the villages beneath this dam benefit from, in addition to its benefit for watering livestock, as it brings water to irrigate farms and the need for urbanization Due to its proximity to Sarat Ubaida city.

Sanan is one of the areas rich in NATEF that is used in homes, and this has given importance in the past. Al Hajlah ( Al-Sorrah  area)

 

It is mentioned in the series of "monuments of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia" that it is about seven Kilometers away from the village of Al-Asran to the east, and it consists of the ruins of an old palace built of large white stones, in addition to the presence of a number of towers built entirely of clay, and other stone was used in building its foundations only, And I have completed from the clay, and on the surface a group of pottery fractures, of brown and red color, and the date of the establishment of this palace on the most likely date back to about 500 years before the present time

 

Al-Asran:

 

Al-Asran was mentioned in the series of Antiquities of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which is four kilometers south-east of Al-Asran, and its area is dominated by gray, and a group of flint tools of various shapes have been found in it. The site also contains more than (30) stone structures. Circular, in the form of two groups separated by a wall, thought to be one of the Neolithic villages.

 

WAKSHA

Their villages are located in the upper reaches of Rafidah and between the villages of Bani Bishr and the tribes of Ubaidah, and a mountain and a straw or a century and a straw that overlooks the city of Sarat from the west as the guardian and descend from it a valley and a straw that supplies the Valley of Sarat. As mentioned in the book Asir Tribes in ignorance and Islam by Omar Bin Fakhrah Al-Amrawi and Qasha in Al-Fateh, their villages are located between the tribes of Bani Bishr, the tribes of Ubaidah, and the highest countries of Rafidah.

 

Professor / Abdullah bin Naji said. The name of the village (Al-Kubaiba) that Al-Hamdani mentioned in his book The Characteristics of the Arabian Peninsula has completely disappeared, so that if you asked about Al-Kubaiba, you would not find someone to say that it is called such a place except that from adding it to a straw it is clear that it is the villages and the present straw, which are the horn, the straw, the wine, and the gaze But there are those who say from outside the tribe that they call the mountain (Zulem), and that it was called the kibbeh. He said: But I exclude this opinion, and I think that what is meant by the kibbeba is the village that is now called (Qarn wa Qasha) for the following reasons:

 

1-It is adjacent to the village of Al-Quraira by Bani Ubaidah

2- Its suitability for housing due to its low height and the presence of old wells in it.

-3 The mountain (Zulum ) is extremely high, not suitable for habitation, and has no traces indicating that it was a village, with the exception of one tower, may have been used to drive fire, as a signal or warn of war

 

Al Abbas - Sarat  Abidah

A group of villages away from the center of Sarat  Abidah governorate 3 km south, inhabited by the Abis, and named after them, and it has a site called (Khushayer) in the middle of the villages of the Abis north of the Al Abbas Mosque currently, and was held there for a period of six months in the year "Khamis Ubaidah Market" "By protecting the falcon family, before moving the market in 1348 AH to the" Al-Bouta ", which are inhabited by the tribes of the Muammar family and the falcon family, the two tribes charged with protecting the market. The villages of Al Abbas have a special architectural style, where they are characterized by the abundance of multi-storey residential towers, and this was evident in the Al Salim Castle, which includes the Battle of Battal Bin Sulayem, which is one of the most prominent ancient buildings, because of its specificity in implementation, and a striking high altitude, Yemen From what the Sarat  Abidah governorate in general and the Abbasid villages in particular enjoyed an architectural civilization rooted in the depths of history. In the village of Al Mahdi, there are homes estimated to be hundreds of years old, including the home of Abu Shabel, which returns Its construction is for more than 450 years and it is still standing today and also houses the family of the ancient Hasasa family. Perhaps the most famous of them is the palace of Sheikh Hussein bin Abdul Rahman bin Hasasa, may God have mercy on him, who has been rebuilt for hundreds of years, and has been restored from inside and outside with its ancient historical image, and its furnishing with equipment and holdings It smells fragrant by history, and has even become the seat of reception for the guests of the region from the royal princes and officials. The restoration of the old style, and the concern not to change the features of the palace, reflected the interest of the people of the region in their past, their civilizational and cultural heritage, and their desire to preserve the personality of the person of this geographical region that is distinguished Much privacy in its civilization and heritage.

 

Jahma village Bani Bishr

 

It is located in the middle of Bani Bishr country and is administratively affiliated to the Sabt Bani Bishr Center of Sarat  Abidah Governorate, in Asir region, south of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

The name of the village belongs to its inhabitants, from the Bani Jahm tribe from Bani Rania

It is also called the AL-Ghaneema and  Zalemah

It is an old village with a distinctive architectural style, located on the western shelf of Wadi al-Jahma, and the mouth of this valley is from the phenomenon located in the northwestern side of the village.

 

Population / This village is inhabited by Al-Jahma tribe, numbering about two thousand people.

 

Urban features / This village is characterized by its fortresses and majestic castles, which reveal a civilization of ancient times, as some sources indicate that it was inhabited since the ninth Higri  century

Its houses built with mud bricks  and stones  for protection from climate impacts consist of several floors, ranging from three floors to five floors.

 

Also, castles (Al-Qusayb) consist of five floors to seven floors, and they are used in double use, they are for keeping grains and for observation at a time of war

 

Among the most famous of these castles are the Kasbah (Sheba) and the Kasbah (Hamra)

 

This village is penetrated from the top to the bottom with a path that passes under the houses of the village, and most of these houses were destroyed due to the foot and the neglect of the residents and their move to concrete houses located north and east of the village and this neglect led to the destruction of nearly 70% of these homes.

Agriculture / This village is particularly agricultural, and it contains crops of all kinds, the most important of which are wheat, corn, barley, lentils, fruits, grapes, figs (bulbs), prickly pears (parshum), etc.

Water sources / this village was famous for its water eyes (Al-Ma'ayen) as it was called by the people of the village, which are three

Al-Naqaz / It is used for ablution because of its proximity to the mosque and washing the clothes of the villagers

The middle liner / water is scooped from it by hand and utensils and used for drinking and filling the water containers to the villagers, especially

 

AL Waqer/ used for drinking and pathogens

 

Wadi Al-Jahma Dam / It is an old dam located on Wadi Al-Maqtar, and it was rebuilt by the people.

 

And  QPedia international Encyclopedia , based on its interest in the local specificity and civilization nature of our historical environment, has been keen on documenting the monuments  of this region and its presentation of the cultural scene in its beautiful form.

 

This report was prepared in cooperation with the historian researcher Prof. Saeed bin Saad bin Suhaim

 

References:

  • Misfer bin Ahmed Al-Wadei, director of the municipality of Sarat Abidah governorate 20/10/1420 H
  • The geographical dictionary of Asir region
  • Sarat Abidah Municipality
  • Agricultural Journal, page 95, issued in the year 1417-1424
  • History of education in the Asir region, d. Gaithan bin Graise.
  • Education and its beginnings in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

الكلمات الدلالية :

القرية, عبيدة, المنطقة, العربية, القرى, وقرية, الجهة, قبائل, القبيلة, محافظة, السراة, العجمة, تتميز, المنازل, ادوار, مدينة, التاريخية, المملكة, المربط, أكيال, الغربية, الجامع, الأبراج, منازل, الجهمة, إنتاج, العسران, منطقة, الغرب, مجموعة, منتصف, الزراعية, القديم, السعودية, الهمداني, ويستخدم, ساكنيها, بمسافة, قنوات, ثلاثة, ويوجد, القديمة, ووادي, معماري, العام, قرابة, تعتبر, المحاصيل, عبيدة،, أعالي, الوسم, التاريخ, عسير،, يميزها, تصريف, قراهم, للحماية, الطريق, الضيوف, الأدوار،, بأنها, معالم, بواسطة, الأمطار, سطحية, القلاع, العين, جنوبا, تتكون, منحوته, العصر, وتتميز, المزارع, الحضاري, يتكون, القدم, الجنوب, كيوبيديا, العالمية, السوق, السيول, مبنية, الشمالية, بمنطقة, إضافة, والذي, بعضها, وتستخدم, تاريخ, الطين, أبناء, حضارة, الشرقية،, العسكري, الحديث, لقربه, وتعود, الجبل, الصقر, الوقت, استخدام, الأتراك،, إنشاء, الماء, الخلف, سلسلة, ومركز, للبنين, بلدية, لسقيا, ابتدائية, بوجود, الموقع, ضاربة, قبيلة, بالفتح, السنين, القصر, وتسمى, يسكنها, الهجلة, بناؤه, الكبيبة, وارتفاع, بالقرية, الأدوات, بكثرة, المباني, للشرب, الأستاذ, عبدالله, القادمين, تواجه, تخترق, تهامة, عليها, الجغرافي, للسكنى, الخصوصية, الحبوب, اللون, التعليم, ومتوسطة
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