QPedia International Encyclopedia In The Heart Of The World(Makkah Al-Mukarramah)

  • 04/06/2021 15:35
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As part of its march and travels across the regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and the world to monitor heritage, history and the components of tourism, translate them and publish them across the world in multiple languages, the QPedia Encyclopedia (qpedia.org) visiting team alighted at the heart of the world (Makkah Al-Mukarramah) on 22/6/1442 AH.

The Encyclopedia’s Department and the organizing committee for the visit had prepared an itinerary organizing the tour of the work team there, which included the path attributed to the Prophet’s biography, along with some forty pre-Islamic sites, tourist marketing paths, several museums, and visits to some Mecca men who had and still have played a distinguished Islamic and social role.

The visiting team kicked off with a visit to the Two Holy Mosques Architecture Exhibition, during which it listened to an explanation of what the Exhibition contains from heritage and antiquities of the Grand Mosque in Mecca (Masjid al-Haram) and the Holy Kaaba.

In the aftermath of that, the team headed to the headquarters of the General Municipality of the Holy Capital, where they were received by His Excellency the Mayor of the Holy Mecca Municipality, Eng. Muhammad bin Abdullah Al-Quwais along with some of the Secretariat’s employees. A meeting was held in which an explanation from His Excellency the Secretary of the Holy Capital was heard, where he addressed specific projects in Makkah.

During the reception, they discussed aspects of joint-cooperation between the Holy Mecca Municipality and the Qpedia International Encyclopedia, in line with the requirements of the Holy Mecca Municipality, and discussed boosting cooperation between the two parties to serve the needs of the public and municipal sector.

The general supervisor of Qpedia International Encyclopedia, Mr. Jaloud bin Dakhil, highlighted the encyclopedia's goals for His Excellency the Secretary-General of the Holy Capital, then souvenirs were exchanged.

Among the most important information obtained by Qpedia International Encyclopedia from the Municipality of the Holy Capital:

Mecca

Urban boundary area 1450 AH 1210 sq km  Altitude 300 meters

The scope of supervision of the Holy Mecca Municipality 12,752 sq km

The area of the sacred precincts of Mecca 556 sq km

The central area (inside the Third Ring Road) 6.4 sq km

The ​​mountainous areas 465 sq km Population (2010) 1,578,722

Population Estimates (2020) 21,189,169

The number of neighborhoods in Makkah Al-Mukarramah 60 neighborhoods

The altitude of Thowr Mountain 750 meters

The protecting area of Thowr Mountain 7,6 sq km

The altitude of Mount Hira 630 meters

The protecting area of ​​Mount Hira 2,1 meters

The areas of the Grand Mosque (current), 365,000 square meters

The area of ​​the Holy Mosque's squares (current) 108,000 square meters

Sacred Sites

The Sacred precincts of Mecca 119,5 sq km

Mina area 7,8 sq km

Muzdalifah area 11,6 sq km

Arafat area 12 sq km

 


 

Following to that, the team headed to the Museum of the Islamic Dinar, where they were received by the museum’s owner and head of the museum, Mr. Muhammad Omar Nito, who provided the delegation with an explanation of the museum and the coins it contains, dating back to the beginning of the Islamic State and some ancient Islamic collectibles.

Then, they headed to the Rawha Museum, which combined the heritage of the past with the scent of the present, and the link between them over time, as well as the suitability of the museum’s site, buildings, and adaptation to its contents, where they were received by Mr. Mohammed Omar Al-Amoudi.

Followed by a visit to Dr. Talaq bin Mutlaq Al-Masoudi, editor-in-chief of Ain Al-Watan newspaper, where the two parties exchanged cordial talks and souvenirs.

On the second day, the team visited:

Dr. Zuhair Hussain Ghunaim / Secretary-General of the International Union of Muslim Scouts, in recognition of his social and national work through various activities that contributed to serving the youth and developing Makkah and receiving pilgrimers, Umrah performers and those heading to the Sacred House.

Then, the delegation went to wander in Wadi Al-Asilah, which contains a collection of rock and archaeological inscriptions. The first inscription dated back to 80 AH, and is located on the path of Al-Hajj Al-Kufi trail

After that, the team went to visit Sheikh Nizar Al-Shaybah, the son and grandson of the guardian of the Holy Kaaba.

The team listened to the ancient profession of the guardianship of the Holy Kaaba, a tradition that has been inherited by the sons of Shaybah and their successors till present times.

After that, the team toured the special museum about the Sacred House (Kaaba) and its ancient and modern artifacts and antiquities.

Then, the team visited the senior muezzin (caller for prayer) of the Holy Mosque of Mecca.. Sheikh / Ali Ahmad Mulla, where he explained to the team an overview of the profession of the muezzins, and gave valuable information and recommendations for those interested in this great work.

On the third day of the team’s visit to the Mecca region, a lecture was held by Mr. Abdulaziz Bakhsh, a tourist guide and member of The National Committee for Tourism in Makkah. Where he briefed the team and the accompanying journalists on some of the ancient Islamic heritage that Mecca embraces, as well as some of its unique characteristics and historical sites, before heading to visit these historical monuments, which will be included in an expanded report to be published later, Allah willing.

Then the team and the accompanying media delegation visited the Abu Sarhad Group, where they were received upon their arrival at the company's headquarters by, the Director-General of Property and Quality, Mr. Faisal Al-Shehri and his colleagues.  The team was briefed on the services provided by the company to citizens and residents as well as pilgrims, visitors and pilgrims to the Holy House (Kaaba). During a field tour in the arcana of the Abu Sarhad Group, they visited some of the factories that are being led by national hands.

Businessman Nasser Abu Sarhad has welcomed to the encyclopedia and offered, during the visit, to take care of the transportation of the encyclopedia's delegation in all their travels within KSA to facilitate their mission.

Then the team went to visit the honorary member of the encyclopedia and the official sponsor of its tours, Mr. Saad bin Hussein bin Daajam, Chairman of the Board of Directors of Bin Dajam Steel Factory. The General Supervisor, Prof. Jaloud bin Dakhil has briefed Mr. Saad bin Dajam, and the attendees on the results of the visit, as well as the mission of the encyclopedia.

He also thanked him on behalf of the board of directors, members of the encyclopedia and the accompanying delegation for the well reception and his permanent sponsorship of the encyclopedia's multiple visits.

Then, souvenirs were exchanged and certificates of gratitude and appreciation were given to the participants, organizers and all those who contributed to the success of the visit.

The most prominent historical and heritage sites and cultural achievements in Makkah Al-Mukarramah

Holy Kaaba

Kaaba is the first place (spot) created by Allah, and He spread earth in all directions. Thus, the Kaaba is the center of the earth. The Kaaba was built 12 times throughout history: the angels, Adam, Seth bin Adam, Ibrahim and Ismail, the giants, Jurhum, Qusay bin Kalab, Quraysh, Abdullah bin Al-Zubair in 65 AH, Al-Hajjaj bin Yusuf in 74 AH, Sultan Murad IV in 1040 AH.

The Hajar al-Aswad (The Black Stone)

One of the two sapphires from Paradise that Allah sent down to the earth. Its color was whiter than snow, but because of the sins of the people, its color changed to the current color. Ibn Abbas narrated that the Prophet Muhammad said: The black stone descended from Paradise whiter than snow, then it was blackened by the sins of the Children of Adam. When Allah sent this sapphire ​​to the earth, it had a light and a ray, but Allah obliterated this light and this ray.

So, what has been left of the Black Stone in our day are seven pieces of the size of a fingertip.

 

Al-Multazam

The area between the corner of the Black Stone and the door of door of the Kaaba, and it is one of the areas where the prayers are answered. The description of the prayer of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, was said in this place that he used to stick his belly, the inside of his hands and his right cheek to the wall of the Kaaba, then pray to Allah as he pleased.

 

The Door of the Kaaba

The Kaaba had two doors to the area of Quraysh, one on the eastern side, which is the one that still exists to current date. The other is to the opposite, western side, which has been closed in an attempt to control entry to the interior of the Kaaba.

The door of the Kaaba was raised above the ground level to protect the inside of the Kaaba from rainwater and floods, as well as for a more control over whoever wishes to enter the interior of the Kaaba, so that they cannot enter until the Quraysh extends their hand and pulls them into the Kaaba.

 

Al-Shazrawan

Marble pieces tilted at the end of the Kaaba with the ground. Its function is to prevent the infiltration of rainwater and floods into the interior and foundation of the Kaaba, and it is not permissible to walk over it during the circumambulation (Tawaf).

 

The Stone of Ismail (Hajar Al-Hateem)

It is a semi-circular wall opposite, but not connected to, the north-west wall of the Kaaba, constructed by Prophet Ibrahim and his son Ismail. Yet, when a great torrent occurred at the time of the Quraysh and the Kaaba was destroyed, the Quraysh gathered in the house and agreed to build it, on the condition that the Kaaba be built from their own money. Therefore, they ended up building the Kaaba with the collected money in the present structure that we see now. And whoever wants to circumambulate the Kaaba must circumambulate from outside the stone of Prophet Ismail (Al-Hateem).

 

Al-Yamani Corner (The Eastern Corner)

From its name it indicates the eastern direction.

 

The Shrine of Prophet Ibrahim

It is located to the left of the same side where the door of the Kaaba, approximately 12 meters away from the Kaaba. It is the second sapphire stone Allah brought down from Paradise to the earth. Prophet Ibrahim, peace be upon him, stood up on this stone while constructing the Kaaba in order to help him whenever the building of the Kaaba rose, before finally fixing it on its current location following the completion of the construction.

 

Zamzam well

It is the site from which the blessed water sprang out after angel Gabriel (Jibra’il), peace be upon him, kicked the ground with his heel, so the water rose. In attempt to contain the spring water, and out of fear of losing it, Hajar, the second wife of Prophet Ibrahim and mother of his son Isamail, began to surround it with dirt repeating “Zomë Zomë”, meaning "stop flowing", and from here came the name Zamzam water, which is blessed water.

 

The Mas'aa of Safa and Marwah

It is the walking distance between the two mountains of Al-Safa (the beginning of Mas'aa or the walking space) and Al-Marwah (the end). Both are parts of the valley of Ibrahim, peace be upon him, and the ritual of walking back and forth between them is one of the duties of Hajj and Umrah. The Almighty said: (Indeed, as-safa and al-Marwah are among the symbols of Allah. So whoever makes Hajj to the House or performs 'umrah - there is no blame upon him for walking between them. And whoever volunteers good - then indeed, Allah is appreciative and Knowing.) [Quran 2:158]

The first project to pave Al-Mas'aa with square flint stone was constructed in 1345 AH, of 395 meters length, 40 meters width, and four floors.

 

Safa Mountain

It is located inside the Grand Mosque on the southeastern side of the Kaaba, facing the corner of the Black Stone, which is a rocky mound that was connected to Abu Qubays Mountain. It marks the beginning of Mas'aa or the walking space from the south. Allah Almighty said: (Indeed, as-safa and al-Marwah are among the symbols of Allah.)

And His Prophet said: “Begin with what Allah had begun with”. Thus, it became obligatory to begin with Al-Safa and end with Al-Marwah, which is the place on which Hajar, the mother of Prophet Ismail - peace be upon them - descended from when she was searching for water for her son, and from here the walking/seeking between Al-Safa and Al-Marwah became a ritual. The Al-Safa is a broad, smooth stone, with a height of 329 meters above sea level.

 

Marwa Mountain

It is located inside the Grand Mosque on the northeastern side of the Kaaba, and it is a mound of rock that was connected to the edge of Qaiqan Mountain from the southeast. It marks the end of Mas'aa or the seeking/walking space from the north, Allah Almighty said: (Indeed, as-safa and al-Marwah are among the symbols of Allah.) Likewise, the end of Mas'aa or the seeking/walking space. Al-Marwah is a shiny white stone with a height of 317 meters above sea level.

 

Abu Qubays Mountain

One of Makkah's most famous mountains, although it is not one of the largest. It overlooks the Grand Mosque of Mecca (Masjid al-Haram) from the eastern side and overlooks Jabal al-Safa, which is the closest mountain to the Kaaba. It is located between the neighborhoods of Ajyad al-Saghir and Shaab Ali, adjacent to the Holy Kaaba. As for the exact origin of its name, it is believed to be called after the first man who rose to build it, it was called in the Jahiliyyah (Pagan times) al-Amin, because the black corner was resided there in the year of the flood. Many buildings are now built on it, the most important of which are: The Royal Palaces of Al-Safa. It was one of the inhabited mountains in Makkah, where the famous Bilal Mosque is located on its top. A frequently mentioned mosque in the books of history, where many believe that it was attributed to the great companion Bilal bin Rabah - may Allah be pleased with him.  Which is not the case, for it is said that its origin has to do with the hill on which the Holy Kaaba is built.  Adjacent to it is the spring of Zamzam. It is 461 meters above sea level.

 

The Khadamah Mountain, or the Khandem

One of the eastern mountains of Mecca, mountain range that starts from the back of Abu Qubays Mountain in the east to the Mina Mountains overlooking Al Azizia, to the Third Ring Road overlooking Mount Thowr from the south. The mountain range extends towards Al Maabdah to the north overlooking Shaab Ibn Aamer and Al-Hajjun, which is the most renowned and habituated neighborhood in old Mecca. Its color is somehow blackened, with some white areas including some jungles and places difficult to navigate, especially for those overlooking Al-Mufajrin. On the day of the conquest, the site was the place where the famous battle of Khindamah took place. As Khalid bin Al-Walid, may Allah be pleased with him, clashed with some of the polytheists of Mecca, and defeated them. It is 589 meters above sea level.

 

Valley of Bani Hashim (Mecca Library)

It is known as the valley of Ali, may Allah bless him and his people, and the valley of Abu Talib, located between the Mount of Abu Qubays to the north and the Mount Khandamah. It was the living place of Banu Hashim. Qattan, may Allah have mercy on him, who passed in the year 1370 AH, had bought the library of Sheikh Majid Kurdi and made it the basis of the Mecca library today. Then, the library has expanded by the inclusion of the libraries of the great scholars and literature of Mecca.  It is the valley where Ali bin Abi Talib, may Allah bless him, and Abdullah bin Abbas, may Allah bless with him, were born. Today, only a part of this valley including the historical library is left, while other parts were added to al-Masjid Al-Haram in different expansions of the mosque.

 

Valley of Ibn Amer

It is located in the north-east of The Meccan Haram, it extends from al-Khandamah Mountain all the way to Gaza neighborhood in front of the Arraya Mosque. Today it is called the Valley of Amer, but the correct name is, the valley of Ibn Amer, attributed to Abdullah bin Amer bin Kariz al-Qurashi, may Allah be pleased with him, the venerable companion and the blessed Musqa'a, who never treated a land without water springing out of it. 

Ali bin Abi Talib, may Allah bless his face, said praising him: Ibn Amer, the master of the Quraysh youths, he was the first to lay the water basin in Arafah. His grave is located there in Mecca in the expansion of the Meccan Sanctuary, and the upper streams are flowed from Khandamah Mountain, adjacent to Ali Valley from the north, opposite Sulaymaniyah district from the east.

It is narrated that the king of Yemen had visited this place and slaughtered camels and cooked them there, so was the name ‘Kitchens’ originated.

 

Qaiqan Mountain

One of the most important mountains ranges that resides on the north and northwestern frontiers of Al-Masjid Al-Haram (the Grand Mosque in Mecca). It extends between the two sides of Kada and Kuda’, overlooking the valley of Dhi Tuwa to the west. It is barely known by its name now, due to the division of the neighborhoods and the diversion of their names along its eastern slopes, such as Sulaymaniyah neighborhood and Shamiya neighborhood, and along its western slopes such as the Al-Otaiba neighborhood and the Jarwal neighborhood.

As well as because some of its parts are associated with signs and accidents: such as Jabal Al-Falaq and Jabal Al-Midfaa. Urbanism covered some of it and some of it went into expansions. Its height is 430 meters above sea level.

 

The Well of Tuwa

The well of Tuwa is a historic well situated in the Valley of Tuwa (Dhi Tuwa). The fame of the place was associated with prophetic events, the most important of which was the coming of the prophet (PBUH) on the eve of the conquest in this valley, relaxing his head in humility and gratitude to Allah, so that his beard almost touches it. It is in this valley that the Prophet had deployed al-Fattah army to conquer Mecca. The area is known today by the name Jarwal neighborhood, with the well still exists, however, there is no firm evidence that the Prophet used its water to wash and performed ablution at it, even though it is the closest in description and location.

 

Ibn Suleiman Palace

It is located in Tuwa Valley (Jarwal neighborhood today) and close to the well, and is named after one of King Abdul Aziz’s men, may Allah have mercy on him. The palace is one of the Hijaz buildings that is famous for their multiple spruces, single-shaped floors, decorative crowns, and vases of beautiful shapes, in addition to the upper tunics built with colored bricks called, Rusk, a predominant style on the buildings of the fourteenth century AH.

 

Abraj Al-Bait Clock Tower

One of the most prominent modern landmarks in the prosperous Saudi era, along with six other towers, known as the King Abdulaziz Endowment Project, may Allah have mercy on him. The total height of the clock tower is 601 meters, while the height of the clock from its base to the highest point at the top of the crescent reaches 251 meters, making it the largest in the world. In the center of the clock, is the Saudi national emblem, and at the top bears the phrase: Allah is Great, and contains loudspeakers that broadcast the call to prayer from the Grand Mosque in Mecca, and during the broadcast they are lit in green and white, and at the top of the clock the crescent rises 23 meters long.

 

Kada

It is located at the upper end of Mecca in the year of the conquest, known today as Al-Hajjun neighborhood. It connects between Wadi Ibrahim, peace be upon him, and Wadi Dhi Tuwa (in the past), and today, between the Al-Hajjun neighborhood and the Al-Otaibi neighborhood. The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) entered Mecca from the side of Kada, in the year of the conquest. On it Arabian Poet Hassan bin Thabit, may Allah be pleased with him, composed a poem, threatening Quraysh:

May we lose our horses, if you don’t see them, 

Stirring up dust rushing for Kada

Kada divides the cemetery of the people of Mecca (Al-Ma`lah) into two parts, north and south. It was said that Prophet Ibrahim, peace be upon him, stood there when he prayed for his descendants. It has been a rocky arduous path, with the successive governments paving their sides and facilitating them until they became easy to walk.

 

The Cemetery of al-Mu'alla  (Jannat al-Mu'alla)

The cemetery is named al-Mu'alla, because it was located higher than Mecca and the flow of the valley when the construction did not exceed it height. It is located in Al-Hajun valley (Kada) to the north of Al-Masjid Al-Haram, and extends elongated from Sulaymaniyah in the south to al-Ja`fariyah in the north. It was known as the cemetery of Al-Muttaybeen, al-Azraqi says: The only neighborhood in Mecca that faces the qiblah with no deviation is the cemetery of al-Mu’alla, for it receives the entire face of the Kaaba straightening. It is the place where the wife of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), Khadija bint Khuwaylid, may Allah be pleased with her, is buried, in addition to the graves of a group of companions and followers, Asmaa bint Abi Bakr Al-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with her, and her son, Zubayr ibn Al-Awam, may Allah be pleased with him.

 

The Mosque of the Jinn (the Mosque of Guards)

The mosque of the Jinn is a mosque in Mecca, located near Jannat al-Mualla, in Al-Hajun valley. It is also known as the Mosque of Guards. The mosque is built at a place where a group of Jinn gathered one night to hear the recitation of Holy Quran. It is narrated that one night, while the prophet (PBUH) was in Mecca, his companions could not find him. So, it was about dawn when they saw him coming from the direction of Hira and asked him about the reason behind his absence. He said: ‘Someone from the Jinn came to invite me, so I went to them to recite the Holy Quran’.  It was also known by the name of the Mosque of Guards because it is where guards gathered at night. It was first constructed in the third Hijri Century, with the last renovation during the reign of King Fahd bin Abdel-Aziz, may Allah have mercy on him, where its outer walls were covered with precious colored marble. Today, it is only known by the name of the Mosque of Jinn, because of the previously mention incident, which is mentioned in Quran in Surah Al- Jinn.

 

Al Jaferiya

It was said that the name came after one of the princes of Mecca in the thirteenth century AH, built a house there, and the neighborhood became famous for it. It is located to north of Al-Masjid Al-Haram between the Azkhar and Hajjs, surrounded by the houses and endowments of the noble Al-Ghalib. Today, it has been included within the neighborhoods of the Al-Maabda area.

 

Al-Jummayzah

The name originated from the large sycamore (Jummayzah) tree, which was at the origin of the ascending road to Al-Masjid Al-Haram. In the ancient days, it was called al-Saffi Valley. It included the orchard of Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, may Allah be pleased with him. Today, it is within the neighborhoods of al-Maabdah area. Ain Zubaydah water pumping station stands to the right of the exit of the Gemmayzeh heading to Mina.

 

Building of the Municipality of the Holy Capital (Khorramania)

The building is located to the north of the Grand Mosque of Mecca (Al-Masjid Al-Haram), originally known by the name, the orchard of Khorrman, which was built by Muawiya bin Abi Sufyan, may Allah be pleased with him, and the old name is attributed to the aforementioned orchard. This building, which is dedicated for the service of Makkah and the development of its facilities, dates back to 1402 AH. It was the first established by King Abdulaziz, may the mercy of Allah be upon him, on the first of Muharram 1346 AH, when the municipality department system was promulgated and the name “The Municipality of the Capital” appeared to include three municipalities: the municipality of Makkah, the municipality of Mina, and the municipality of al-Shuhada district. In the year 1397 AH, the word “Holy” was added, Thereby, becoming The Municipality of the Holy Capital. The current building is erected on the most historic land of Khorraman.

 

Sebil (Fountain) of Al-Maabdah

It is located on the road leading to Mina. Upon a decree from King Abdulaziz bin Abdul Rahman Al Saud, may Allah bless his soul, it was constructed in the wall of the Habashi Mosque, in 1362 AH. The building is arched with bricks and cladded with a nora (stone faucets) topped with a plaster board inscribed with the name of the endowment owner and the year of the endowment.. Almost obliterated Now, the Sebil (fountain) adjoins the Habashi Mosque from the southern side.

 

Al-Saqqaf Palace (King Abdulaziz Palace)

The name is given to the palace built by Sharif Ghalib bin Musaed in 1212 AH in Al-Abtah on the Road to Mina. It remained standing until the middle of the fourteenth century AH, then it was demolished and Al-Saqqaf Palace (the royal palace of al-Ma'abda) is built of a two-story building, in Al-Maabdah neighborhood.

In 1325, it was inhabited by King Abdul Aziz, may Allah have mercy on him, and it was renovated and restored on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Kingdom in 1419 AH. It includes many Islamic artistic and decorative elements, and its area is estimated at (9) thousand square meters, and it has a main entrance as a gate in the middle of the northern façade, two secondary entrances, and an annex to the building in the northeastern corner is a building similar to a castle or war tower. It is also known as the Ruling Palace, the Royal Palace, and the Al-Ma’abdah Palace.

 

King Saud Palace

It was founded after the 50s AH, and is located opposite the Saqqaf Palace, at the origin of Jabal Ghurab between the King Abdulaziz Mosque and the Municipality of the Holy Capital. It has a spacious field for military parade and the performance of the royal salute, whenever delegations came to meet King Abdulaziz - may Allah have mercy on him in the Saqqaf Palace after the Hajj season.

 The Palace has a very impressive architectural style, which was famous in the Hijaz. It is said that the palace was built by Yusef Salem Qattan (father of Abbas, the mayor of the capital) as his own residence, and King Abdulaziz bought it from him and gave it to his son and crown prince, King Saud, may Allah have mercy on them. According to Dr. Faryal Mahmoud Kattan, professor of history at King Abdulaziz University,the father of King Abdulaziz used to stay in the Qattan house in Makkah Al-Mukarramah. King Abdulaziz once said: ‘whenever I pass by this house, I remember my father, may Allah have mercy on him’.

 

Al-Ijabah Mosque

It is located to the north of the King Abdulaziz Mosque, to the right of the road to the Grand Mosque from Al-Maabedah. Formerly known as the valley of Al Qunfudhah family: Qunfidh bin Zuhair from the Bani Asad bin Khuzaymah, and today he is known as the valley of Al-Ijabah  (the answer). It is said that the Prophet prayed in this place built several times. It has been constructed several times and was well renovated during the reign of King Fahd bin Abdulaziz, may Allah have mercy on him, where the mosque was covered from the outside with colored marble, along with a beautiful dome in the middle of it, and a minaret was placed outside the mosque constructer.

 

Building of the Municipality of the Holy Capital (Khorramania)

The building is located to the north of the Grand Mosque of Mecca (Al-Masjid Al-Haram), originally known by the name, the orchard of Khorrman, which was built by Muawiya bin Abi Sufyan, may Allah be pleased with him, and the old name is attributed to the aforementioned orchard. This building, which is dedicated for the service of Makkah and the development of its facilities, dates back to 1402 AH. It was the first established by King Abdulaziz, may the mercy of Allah be upon him, on the first of Muharram 1346 AH, when the municipality department system was promulgated and the name “The Municipality of the Capital” appeared to include three municipalities: the municipality of Makkah, the municipality of Mina, and the municipality of al-Shuhada district. In the year 1397 AH, the word “Holy” was added, Thereby, becoming The Municipality of the Holy Capital. The current building is erected on the most historic land of Khorraman.

 

Al- Khorramania Cemetery

It is located in the western courtyard of the Municipality of the Holy Capital Building in al-Ma'badah. It is small in size, triangular in shape, surrounded by the main road on the northern side, facing the mouth of Re'A Zakher, just opposite to al-Ma'abdah health center. It is a pre-Islmaic (Jahiliyya) cemetery, in which the families of Asayd bin Abi al-Ais bin Umayya bin Abd Shams and Abu Sufyan bin Abd al-Asad were buried.  After Islam, the great companion Abdullah bin Omar - may Allah be pleased with him - was buried in it, as he died in Mecca during his stay at Abdullah bin Khalid bin Asaid’s. As well as Abu Qahfa and Utab bin Usayd, may Allah be pleased with them, were also buried there.

 

King Abdulaziz Mosque

It is located on the northeastern part of Ghurab Mountain, opposite the entrance to the Al-Faisaliah neighborhood today. It was built and expanded by His Royal Highness Prince Ahmed bin Abdulaziz, may Allah protect him, as part of the works of the blessed leadership. The place is at the end of the northeastern borders of kheif Bani Kenana (Al-Maabdah today, previously known as al-Abtah).

 

Al-Maabdah Mountain

It is located to the left of the way leading to Mina, after the King Abdulaziz Mosque. It was called al-Ayr Mountain in the past, as it corresponds to al-Aira (the curve) Mountainfrom the northwestern side. While others call it al-Qalaa (Citadel) Mountain, after the castle that was built in the prosperous Saudi era in 1345 AH and rises at its tip. The Mountain, today, divides between Al-Ijabah neighborhood and Al-Khansa neighborhood (originally known as Al-Akhnis). Stone stairs were used to climb to the castle to transfer supplies to the guards... Meanwhile, Al-Ma'abdah neighborhood housed King Abdulaziz Al Saud and King Saud bin Abdulaziz, for it also houses the palace of King Faisal bin Abdulaziz, May Allah have mercy on them.

 

Al-Munhana Mountain

It is located to the right of the way leading to Mina, after the King Abdulaziz Mosque, and opposite it al-Ayr (al-Maabdah) Mountain from the southeastern side. It was called in the old days al-Ayra Mountain. But known nowadays by al-Shaibi Mountain, as well as Al-Munhana (the curve) Mountain, because of the curve of the valley in front of it and its turn. Today it separates the neighborhood of Rawda and the neighborhood of Al-Faisaliah (Malawi) and oversees the palace of King Faisal, may Allah have mercy on him, which currently houses Makkah Province Principality.

 

Tunnels

The first two tunnels in Makkah

 

King Faisal Palace

An authentic and ancient historical building that narrates the march of the founding stage of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It was the residence of King Faisal, may Allah have mercy on him, when he was the Viceroy Hijaz, then he settled in it. It is located to the northeast of Masjid Al-Haram on the road leading to Mina and Taif (King Faisal Road or Al Abtah Road formerly). Originally, it was called Qasr al-Shaybi, and it is one of the old palaces in Makkah. Next to it, is the new building of Makkah Province Principality. The palace, also, has the last well built during the pre-Islamic era (Al-Jahilia), known as the well of ibn al-Hadrami, on the side of Al-Munhana (the curve) Mountain.

 

Al-Adl Square

Its name goes back to the dam that was built by King Abdulaziz - may Allah have mercy on him - in 1360 AH to protect the Grand Mosque and to repel torrential waters and divert them (transfer) from Al-Abtah to Wadi Al-Zahir, through Khuraiq Al-Ushr, which is known today as Hajj Street. The place was called in the past: (Sidra Khalid) after its inhabitant, namely Khalid bin Abdullah bin Usaid Al-Umayyad.

 

Al-Adl Cemetery

It was built in 1345 AH, inside the sacred precincts of Mecca and is considered the second cemetery after the cemetery of al-Ma'alla today, despite the reduction of the burial in it and the transfer to the cemetery of the martyrs in Sharia. Al-Adl Cemetery of justice is located to the northeast of Al-Masjid Al-Haram (the Grand Mosque of Mecca), in King Faisal Road.

 

Thubair Mountain

It is located to the northeast of Al-Masjid Al-Haram, facing Hira Mountain, overlooking the neighborhoods of Al Adl and Jabal Al Nur. Separating between them is King Faisal Road heading towards Shara’i and Al Sail (which is Ibrahim valley originally). It is one of the highest and strongest of Makkah’s Mountains, it overlooks the Al Abtah (Al Maabdah) from the east, and Mina from the north, and Hira Mountain from the south. It was called “Samir” in the Jahiliyyah, then it was called “Sifra”. As for its name “Thubair”, Al-Suhaili said: It is maned after a man from Hudhail tribe who died at that mountain.

There are frequent sayings in the biography books that on this mountain the scapegoat fell for our Prophet Ishmael, peace be upon him, when Ibrahim told his son that he have seen in a dream that he must sacrifice him. Then Ismael replied, “O my dear father! Do as you are commanded. Allah willing, you will find me steadfast”.... “And We ransomed him with a great sacrifice”. The Mountain is located at altitude of 814 meters above sea level.

 

Hira Mountain

It is located approximately 5 km north-east of the Grand Mosque (Al-Masjid Al-Haram), to the left of the road leading to al-Shari’a'i. Facing it from the south side, Thubair Ghinaa Mountain, and between them is King Faisal bin Abdulaziz Road. The mountain houses the grotto or cave of Hira. It has gained fame due to that the fact that it is where Prophet Muhammad had meditated and received his first revelation, which consisted of the first five verses of Surah al-Alaq from the angel Jibra’il: “Recite in the name of your Lord who created. Created man from a clinging substance. Recite, and your Lord is the most Generous - Who taught by the pen. Taught man that which he knew not.” Therefore, it is the place where the earth meets the sky and the verses of the Holy Qur’an descend, and that is why it was called the Mountain of Light (Jabal al-Nur). It is where Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) used to meditate every year before the revelation.

The Mountain is located at altitude of 555 meters above sea level.

 

Bay’ah Mosque

It is located close to Mina, about 300 meters away from Jamrah al-Aqabah (stoning of the devil), to the right of the Jamarah Bridge leading to Al-Masjid al-Haram. Al-Bay’ah Mosque used to be situated at one of the Thubair neighborhoods, yet following the blessed expansion it became prominent. Its significance is stemmed from the story of the first and second Aqaba pledge between the Prophet (PBUH) and the Ansar before the Prophet’s migration (The Hijra). It was built at the request of the Abbasid Caliph Abu Jaafar Al-Mansour at the site of Al-Bay’ah, in 144 AH.

 

The Sacred Sites (Mina, Muzdalifah, Arafat)

Hajj is the fifth of the five pillars of Islam, and the rituals of Hajj consist of different pillars performed at different times, and in three main sites, known as the Sacred Sites.

Mina, Muzdalifah and Arafat are located to the east of the Grand Mosque (Al-Masjid Al-Haram). The areas of the sacred sites vary greatly, and they have been equipped with extensive services such as a transportation network, water, lighting, streets, bridges and crossings.

 

Mina

It is located to the east of Al-Masjid Al-Haram. The name means the place where pilgrims gather, for Arabs call the place where people meet as “Mina”. It incorporates the tents, the Jamarat area, and the slaughterhouses. The pilgrims visit it twice, during the performance of the rituals of Hajj.

For they stay there on the eighth day of Dhu al-Hijjah (It is called the Day of Tarwiyah), then it revisit it on the days of Tashreeq (on the morning of the tenth day of Dhu al-Hijjah) to perform the stoning of the devil, known as the stone throwing ritual.

It covers an area of 4 km.

 

Jamarat (the Stoning of the Devil) Facility

A giant engineering project that was carried out in the auspicious Saudi era, with a value of more than 4 billion Saudi Riyals, in five phases. The Jamarat Bridge was first constructed in 1394 AH and now it consists of five floors, each floor is 12 meters high, totaling 950-meter long and 300-meter wide structure.  It has 62 electric ladders and 4 elevators, in addition to two helipads, and areas for medical evacuation and first aid. The capacity of the Jamarat facility is now approximately 250 thousand pilgrims per hour.

The pillars of the bridge are of 45 meters length, elliptically shaped to streamline the flow, and made of a special composite shock absorbing materials to absorb energy and cause the stones (pebbles) to drop rather than bounce back into the crowds. Also, the basin is lined with a sponge so as not to affect Al-Hajjaj during stoning. Next to the bridge, there are areas for medical evacuation and first aid.

 

Al-Khaif Mosque

Its name is derived from what descended from the thick of the mountain and rose from the stream of water. It is located on the southern slope of Mount Mina (Al-Sabeh), close to the smallest Jamrah. It is deemed to be one of the most prominent historical mosques in which the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and the Prophets preceded him have prayed. It has been the center of attention and concern of the Muslim caliphs. It was built during the reign of the Abbasid state in the year 256 AH, and renovated more than once. However, its grand expansion was conducted in 1402 AH, with the addition of four minarets, and an area covering 25,000 square meters.

 

Residential Buildings

An experiment to build on the slopes of the mountains and benefit from accommodating the increasing numbers of pilgrims.

It consists of six towers with a capacity of about: 6000 pilgrims per building.

 

Developed Tents

It was introduced to the sites due its compatibility and ability to provide safety for the pilgrims. Among their most prominent characteristics are:

They are non-flammable, air-conditioned and lit, with paved organized corridors between the tents. Along with emergency exits in their parts, provided with all means of security and safety.

 

Mina General Hospital

One of the three hospitals in Mina. The capacity of each hospital is 500 beds equipped with full medical equipment, and it is operated during the Hajj season only. The staff (doctors, nurses, technicians, administrators) are brought from all KSA’s hospitals to work during the Hajj season to serve the guests of the Most Merciful Allah. All surgical operations are performed in it (from the smallest operation to the largest operation – open-heart surgeries).

 

The Old Royal Palace in Mina

It is the palace from which King Faisal and King Khalid, may Allah have mercy on them, used to provide all the services that the pilgrims of the Most Merciful Allah need.

 

Valley of Muhassar

A small valley to the eastern side of Thubair Mountain, and constitutes a dividing boundary between Mina and Muzdalifah, yet not part of any of them. Rather, it is a stream of water that is pushed into Uranah, passing through Husayniyah. It is the place where it is desirable for the pilgrim to hurry up and it is located within the sacred precincts of Mecca. Its width id approximately 250 meters. It is called Muhassar because it is weary, tiresome and hectic. - and from it the Almighty Allah says: “Then look again and again—your sight will return frustrated and weary.” It is, also, said that the name because they used in the pre-Islamic era (Jahilia) to stand at it recalling all the glories of their fathers. Thus, the story of Abraha’s elephant and its wearisome in the valley of Muhassar has been historically debunked because the elephant did not enter the sacred precincts of Mecca. The thing that has been confirmed by the late scholar Ibn Uthaymeen, may Allah have mercy on him.

 

Al Mashaaer Al Mugaddassah (The  Holy Sites) Metro line

Al Mashaaer Al Mugaddassah Metro line consists of nine stations from Arafat to Mina. The project has provided more than 20 trains. Each train has 12 carriages. Each train can accommodate 3,000 people, making the train’s capacity of about 72,000 people per hour.

 

Muzdalifah and Al-Mash'ar (The Sacred Grove)

Muzdalifah is Al-Mash'ar Al-Haram (The Sacred Grove). The name is derived from “Izdalaf” in Arabic, which means gathering or coming close meeting. According to Hafez ibn Hajar, the name is because it is where Adam met Eve and came close to her. It is located inside the sacred precincts of Mecca. The stay at Muzdalifah is preceded by a day at Arafat, then the pilgrims would head there on their way to Mina on the ninth day and spend the night or part of it, and perform the Maghrib, Isha and Fajr prayers jointly.

 

Quzah Mountain

It is situated next to Masjid Mashar al-Haram in Muzdalifah. It was named after a cylinder of lighthouse-like stones that was burned with wax in the past, and it is now a small mountain at the edge of Muzdalifah from the south, southwest of Al-Mash'ar Al-Haram (The Sacred Grove). On which a palace for His Majesty King Abdulaziz was built in 1364 AH, and the building is still standing after renovation and renewal. A road has been paved between it that branches into two paths, one of them leads to Dhaba (the way of the Prophet towards Arafat), and the other leads to A-Mazem (the way of the Prophet towards Muzdalifah). In pre-Islamic times, Qazah Mountain was known as al-Muqdah, because a fire was lit on its tip on the night of the descent from Arafah.

 

Zubaydah Spring (Nuaman Spring)

Attributed to Mrs. Zubaydah, wife of the Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid, and was constructed in 194 A.H. It stems from Al-Aujar Mountain in Bakra at the top of Nuaman valley, 35 km east of Mecca. Its water flows to the bottom of Al-Aziziyah (passing through the holy sites), where a huge well was dug there folded with stones near the Ibn Baz Mosque, may Allah have mercy on his soul. The beads and masonry show the preciousness and precision of the architecture at that time. It consists of beads, rods and holes along the course of the well.

 

Uranah Valley

It is the valley coming from the northwest towards the southwest, which is the boundary between Arafah and the Meccan Sanctuary from the west.

 

Arafat

The Story behind its names goes as Angel Jibril, peace be upon him, escorted Prophet Ibrahim, peace be upon him, to Arafat (and he showed him the Holy Sites), so he asked: Did you know? (‘Areft?). Yes, replied Prophet Ibrahim. From here came the name “Arafat”. However, some who attribute the name to the fact that it is where Adam and Eve, peace be upon them, introduced to each other, upon their descendent from Paradise. While others tend to believe that, it is because people confess their sins on the day of Arafah, seeking Allah’s pardon, mercy and forgiveness. Some say because it is where people would get to know each other on the day of Arafat upon their arrival from various parts of the world from all walks of life, rich and poor, black and white, Arabs and non-Arabs.

It is located outside the sacred precincts of Mecca, unlike the two Holy Sites of Mina and Muzdalifah, where the pilgrim visits on the ninth day of Hijj.

 

Nimrah Mosque

Also known as Ibrahim Al-Khalil Mosque, peace be upon him. It is located to the west of Arafat. The pilgrims perform the Zuhr and Asr prayers shortened in combination following the example of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). The mosque was built at the beginning of the Abbasid Caliphate era in the middle of the second century AH, in the place where the “Farewell Pilgrimage” sermon was delivered by The Prophet (PBUH).  The Mosque went through several expansions throughout history, and ended with the expansion that took place during the era of the blessed Saudi state.

 

The Mountain of Mercy (Jabal Al-Rahma)

It is a small mountain, located to the east of Arafat between Road no. 7 and Road no. 8, with a total height of 372 meters and a height of 65 meters from the ground surrounding it. Almost surrounded by Zubaida water stream. During the Farwell Pilgrimage, The Prophet (PBUH) stood at its eastern side and said: “I stationed here, and the whole Arafah is the place of station”. Among its other names: Mount Arafat, Jabal al-Nabit, Jabal al-Qurain, and Jabal al-Tawbah, and in the pre-Islamic era, it was called (Elal).

 

Al Mashaaer Al Mugaddassah (The Holy Sites) Metro line

Al Mashaaer Al Mugaddassah Metro line consists of nine stations from Arafat to Mina. The project has provided more than 20 trains. Each train has 12 carriages. Each train can accommodate 3,000 people, making the train’s capacity of about 72,000 people per hour.

 

Umm Al Qura University

The University is the birthplace of the first higher degree college in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), which is the College of Sharia (Islamic Law), before the addition of new colleges and applied and theoretical departments for both male and female students.

 

Thowr Mountain

It is about 4.5 km to the south of the Holy Kaaba. At an altitude of about 760 meters above sea level, it is located between Al-Hijra neighborhood in the east and Batha Quraysh to the west.  It is such a huge mountain with pointed tips, whose fame is attributed to the cave in which the Prophet (PBUH) and Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him, hid during the prophetic migration journey for a period of three days. The cave has an opening on its western side and a smaller one on the eastern side, with a length and width of about three meters, but a little over a meter in height. It is where Almighty Allah said: “he had no more than one companion; they two were in the cave”. The story goes as for while they both were hiding in the cave, the Quraysh came looking for them, until it stood at the mouth of the cave, but Allah protected them, thanks to Him and His ability. On seeing the traces of Quraysh, Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “If one of them should lift up his foot, he will see us.” Therefore, the Prophet (PBUH), replied: (O Abu Bakr, what do you think of two, the third of whom is Allah?” The prophetic migration is the greatest event in the history of the Islamic call, as it was the establishment of the Islamic state and the spread of the true religion throughout the world.

 

Sayyida Aisha Mosque (Al-Taneem)

Al-Taneem is the boundary of The Meccan Sanctuary from the side of Medina, so named because it is located between two mountains, one to the right and known as Naeem, the other “Naem” to left.  However, the place is called Al-Taneem, which is originally a tree known as the desert, so green as if sprinkled with oil.  Sayyida Aisha Mosque - may Allah be pleased with her - is located to the right is the direction towards Medina. It is known as Sayyida Aisha Mosque since Prophet Muhammad’s wife, Ayesha had put her Ihram (restriction on pilgrimage) from this place once. It is the closest to Masjid al-Haram, approximately six kilometers northwest. The mosque was rebuilt repeatedly, and the last expansion was during the reign of King Fahd bin Abdulaziz - may Allah have mercy on him - on an area of ​​(84,000 square meters) that includes its facilities or the area of ​​the mosque, which is (6000 square meters) with a capacity of about (15,000 worshipers).

 

Valley of Yajij

It is located to the north of Masjid al-Haram at the end of the Makkah-Madinah road, passing through the Aisha Mosque, May Allah be pleased with her, in Al-Taneem area. Among the common people of Makkah, it is called the well of Maqqit, as well as Yajij. As it is said that: at its northern end, the great companion Khubayb bin Adi - may Allah be pleased with him - was killed, for he was one of the captives on the Day of Return. It is where the Makkah Power Station is located, today. Among its landscapes:  the House of Kiswah (the cloth that covers Kaaba), the cemeteries where the people of Mecca walk, as well as some gas stations. Then it continues with an inclination to the north until it pays in the valley of Dhahran, and its length is approximately 3 km. According to biography books, The Prophet (after the Battle of Badr) commanded Zaid bin Haritha - may Allah be pleased with him - and a man from the Ansar, and he told them: Wait in the Valley of Yajij till Zaynab passes you, then you should accompany her and bring her back.

 

Waji Sarf (Al-Nawaria)

One of Makkah's northwestern valleys approximately 2 km to Masjid al-Haram, located between Wadi Al-Tanaim and Wadi Mur of Dhahran, and it was called Al-Nawariyah: referring to the makers of the revolution, as it was famous for the abundance of lime in its mountains. Also, there were many lime mines and factories burning it, before construction extended and covered the largest industrial bench known in Makkah. The valley is located at the avenue between Mecca and Medina, and it was mentioned in the Prophet’s biography (PBUH), in which he married the mother of the believers, Maymoona bint al-Harith al-Hilaliyya - may Allah be pleased with her - and her grave is still known there.

 

Tomb of the Mother of Believers, Maymoona bint Al-Harith, may Allah be pleased with her

It is located in Wadi Sarf (Al-Nawaria), to the right of the way leading from Medina to Makkah before reaching the new bridge, and the tomb is surrounded by a white concrete wall on the top of a small heap, known and visible. It is narrated that in this place the Prophet consummated his marriage with her after completing performing Umra in the year 7 AH. She died in the same place, Allah please her, in 51 AH, and her nephew Abdullah bin Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, prayed on her and lowered her in her grave, may Allah have mercy on them all.

 

Murr Dhahran Valley (Fatimah Al-Jumum Valley)

A vast valley, one of the largest in the land of Hizaj.  The origin of the name is said to be derived the word ‘marar’, which means bitter in Arabic, due to the bitterness of its water. This valley hosts the most prominent inhabited villages and urban life in the area.

The Murr Dhahran valley is about 120 km in length, with a number of spring and its tributaries totaling 38 springs. It embraces more than 30 villages, the most important of which are: Al-Bara and Al-Jumum, Daf Khuza'a, Hada and Bahrah…etc.

As for the name of Fatimah Valley, it only appeared in the 10th century AH. According to Historian Abdel-Qudous Al-Ansari Allah, the name goes back to: Fatima Al-Khuzaia, who used to live in this valley. She was a clever doctor. People used to visit her for treatment, so gained fame there and the valley was known by her.

 

Majnah Market

It is located in the north-east of Makkah at a distance of 28 km, the upper part of the Valley of Marr Dhahran. The name “Majnah Market” is derived from jinn, madness, or heaven, and beautiful garden filled with water (Jinan in Arabic).

During the Jahiliyyah, the pre-Islam era, the Majnah market was not a place for writers and poets, nor a place for sale and trade, but rather a forum in which the Arabs gathered for intellectual and political theorization, as the Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him, went to him to invite Arab tribes to enter Islam. An archaeological survey conducted by the Antiquities and Museums Agency revealed traces of water stream and some pottery. Upon his return from the siege of Taif and as he got ready to perform Umrah from the Ja`arana, The Prophet (PBUH) commanded the transfer of the remaining trophies to Majnah Market. It has been closed after Okaz in the year 129 AH, after they took advantage of the commercial markets in Makkah, Mina and Arafah.

 

Ain Azizya Wells

King Abdulaziz constructed it from the Valley of Marr Dhahran to Jeddah in 1366 AH, close to the village of Abu Hasana; along with establishing several endowments on it. The most famous of which are: Ain Abi Shuaib, Ain Al Jumum, Ain Al-Haniyeh, Ain Al-Hasaniya, Ain Al-Barqa, and Ain Abi Urwa And Ain Al-Khaif, Ain Al-Rawda, as well as the Abi Hasani area.

An agreement has been made with a foreign company of a project to deliver water to the city of Jeddah, and to extend a pipeline of asbestos and cement from Ain Abi Shuaib to Jeddah with a length of 65 km. Also, a huge tank was built at Kilo 14 of The Makkah-Jeddah road with a capacity of about one million gallons, followed by  the construction of several tanks or reservoirs at more than one place, under the auspicies of King Faisal bin Abdulaziz - may Allah have mercy on him - was at that time looking at her.

 

Al-Fath Mosque

It is located in the province of Jumum, in the valley of Wadi Murr in Dhahran, near a spring of water there. The mosque marks the location where The Prophet (PBUH) and the Islamic Army camped en route to conquer Mecca, in the eighth year of the Prophet’s blessed migration. It is, also, the place where the companion Abu Sufyan Sakhr bin Harb - may Allah be pleased with him – converted to Islam at the hands of the Holy Prophet (PBUH).

 

Al Rawda Mosque

A small mosque, rectangular in shape, walls 80 cm thick, is still standing in Al Rawda in in the valley of Wadi Murr in Dhahran, east of the Jumum Province. It was built in the late Ottoman period, with basalt stones coated with a layer of plaster and lime mortar grouting.  Its architectural style differs from that of the region’s mosques, where the ceiling has four half-barreled ceilings, with is no minaret. Rectangular pillars whose upper ends are slanting outward from its sides and rise to the height of the walls of the mosque, and it has two knotted niches projecting outwards in a rectangular shape, each of which is surmounted by a pointed arch. The mosque has two entrances knotted in the northern wall facing the mihrabs. As for the windows, there are eight of them, each pair adjacent to a corner of prostration.

 

Hadda Mosque

Located in the village of Hada, in the middle of the old Makkah-Jeddah-Road, the mosque of Hadda is rectangular in shape. Many parts of it were destroyed, and despite that, it preserved its general layout. The front half of it was built in a depression on the ground by virtue of the nature of the site on which it was built. Therefore, it is noticed that the outer granite of the qibla corridor is higher than the rest of the granaries,  as they was built from the bottom of it diagonally so that the walls would not collapse when the torrents rushed into this depression.  It was also noticed that the hollow mihrab, the one in the middle of the qibla wall, stands out from the azimuth of the sloping wall.  For the qibla hallway was covered with domes, of which only one dome was left. In addition to that, the upper edge of the mosque walls was decorated with crenellations, each one in the form of an arch. Also, this mosque is marked by the plastering of the stones from the outside, which gave it a striking aesthetic appearance.

 

Murar Path (Murar Thaniyah)

The name is derived from the bitter trees. As the term ‘marar’ means bitter in Arabic. ‘Al-Thaniyah’, however, means a path in a mountain range. It is on the Al-Hudaybiya runway in Murr Dhahran Valley, between the mountains of Maksar and Addad, about 12 km southwest of Al-Jumum, and the name of the road that passes through it today is known as Faj Al-Kuraimi, at the village of Al-Jabal.

Jabir bin Abdullah reported that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: He who climbed the hill, the hill of Murar, his sins would be obliterated as were the sins of Bani Israil.

 

Al-Hudaibiya Mosque

Located at an average village, not large in size, Al-Hudaibiya village was name after a well there at the Al-Shajarah Mosque, under which the Messenger of Allah pledged allegiance to Allah.

As for the name Al-Hudaybiyah, the story goes that it has been named after a humpbacked-tree, for  the word ‘Hudaybiyah’ in Arabic means humpback. It is about 22 km away from Mecca on the old Jeddah road, some parts of it are located inside the Haram (Meccan Sanctuary), known today as Shumaisi, after a man called Shamisa, who dug a well there. Al-Hudaybiyah Mosque and the place of its tent at the time of the famous Hudaybiyah peace treaty in the sixth year of the blessed migration of the Prophet, it is about 150 meters to the west of the well.

However, it has no trace. Rather, there is an alternative mosque on the road, about 500 meters from the well. Behind it is an old building, most probably it was built during the time of the Ottoman Empire.

 

Hira Mountain

Altitude: 555 meters from sea level.

Location: It is located approximately 5 km north-east of the Grand Mosque of Mecca (Masjid Al-Haram) to the left of the road going to the Shari’a. Facing it from the south side, Thubair Ghinaa Mountain, and between them is King Faisal bin Abdulaziz Road, which slopes down steeply so that its slope forms a right angle.

Status: It is where the earth meets the sky, the mountain houses the grotto or cave of Hira. It has gained fame due to that the fact that it is where Prophet Muhammad had meditated and received his first revelation, which consisted of the first five verses of Surah al-Alaq from the angel Jibra’il: “Recite in the name of your Lord who created. Created man from a clinging substance. Recite, and your Lord is the most Generous - Who taught by the pen. Taught man that which he knew not.” Therefore, it is the place where the earth meets the sky and the verses of the Holy Qur’an descend, and that is why it was called the Mountain of Light (Jabal al-Nur). It is where Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) used to meditate every year before the revelation. The cave located at the southern-western side of the tip of Hira Mountain.

 

Thowr Mountain

Altitude: 760 meters from sea level

Location: It is located to the south of the Holy Kaaba at a distance of 4.5 km, between Al-Hijra neighborhood in the east and Batha Quraish to the west, which is a huge mountain with pointed tips.

Status: His fame is attributed to to the cave in which the Prophet (PBUH) and Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him, hid during the prophetic migration journey for a period of three days. The cave has an opening on its western side and a smaller one on the eastern side, with a length and width of about three meters, but a little over a meter in height. It is where Almighty Allah said: “he had no more than one companion; they two were in the cave”. The story goes as for while they both were hiding in the cave, the Quraysh came looking for them, until it stood at the mouth of the cave, but Allah protected them, thanks to Him and His ability. On seeing the traces of Quraysh, Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “If one of them should lift up his foot, he will see us.” Therefore, the Prophet (PBUH), replied: (O Abu Bakr, what do you think of two, the third of whom is Allah?” The prophetic migration is the greatest event in the history of the Islamic call, as it was the establishment of the Islamic state and the spread of the true religion throughout the world.

 

Abu Qubays Mountain

Altitude: 461 meters above sea level.

Location: It overlooks the Grand Mosque of Mecca (Masjid al-Haram) from the eastern side and overlooks Jabal al-Safa, which is the closest mountain to the Kaaba. It is located between the neighborhoods of Ajyad al-Saghir and Shaab Ali, adjacent to the Holy Kaaba.

Status: One of Makkah's most famous mountains, although it is not one of the largest. It was one of the inhabited mountains in Makkah, where the famous Bilal Mosque is located on its top. A frequently mentioned mosque in the books of history, where many believe that it was attributed to the great companion Bilal bin Rabah - may Allah be pleased with him.  Which is not the case, for it is said that its origin has to do with the hill on which the Holy Kaaba is built.  Adjacent to it is the spring of Zamzam.

As for the exact origin of its name, it is believed to be called after a man name Qubays who was the first to build a home on this mountain. Yet, in the Jahiliyyah (the pre-Islamic era), the mountain was also known as ‘Al-Amin’, an Arabic word meaning ‘the trustworthy’ when used to describe a person’s honourable character, but which can be understood to mean the ‘safekeeper’. For the mountain safeguarded the black corner of Kaaba during the year of the flood. Many buildings are now built on it, the most important of which are: The Royal Palaces of Al-Safa.

 

Mount Qaiqaan

Height: 430 m

Location: the huge mountain overlooking Masjid Al-Haram from the north and northwest, extending between the two folds of Kada and Kuda, overlooking the valley of Dhi Tuwa to the west.

Status: It one of the most prominent great mountain range of Makkah. But, it is barely known by its name now, due to the division of the neighborhoods and the diversion of their names along its eastern slopes, such as Sulaymaniyah neighborhood and Shamiya neighborhood, and along its western slopes such as the Al-Otaiba neighborhood and the Jarwal neighborhood. As well as because some of its parts are associated with signs and accidents: such as Jabal Al-Falaq and Jabal Al-Midfaa. Urbanism covered some of it and some of it went into expansions.

 

The Red Mountain

The place: It is located behind The Indian mountain on the northern side of Masjid Al-Haram, which is the northwestern part of the Qaiqaan Mountain range, overlooking the Jarwal neighborhood.

Status: In the pre-Islamic era of Jahiliyya, it was called the Red Mountain. Today, it is called Jabal al-Madafa (Cannons Mountain). Originally, it was part of Qaiqaan Mountain. On top of its summit is a fortress built in 1374 AH, and right next to it was placed three cannons. In the Holy Month of Ramandan, another two cannons are added in an indication of the beginning of the holy month. The cannons are fired announcing for Iftar (the breaking of the fast), the pre-dawn meal, and the entry of Eid al-Fitr. The name dated back to the year 1028 AH, when a righteous man, Muhammad bin Ahmed bin Asbat al-Abadi, had dwelled, died and buried in it.

 

The Khadamah Mountain (Khandem)

Altitude: 589 meters above sea level

Location: It is one of the eastern mountains of Mecca. A mountain range that starts from the back of Abu Qubays Mountain in the east to the Mina Mountains overlooking Al Azizia, to the Third Ring Road overlooking Mount Thowr from the south. The mountains range extends towards Al Maabdah to the north overlooking Ibn Aamer and Al-Hajjun, which is the most renowned and habituated neighborhood in old Mecca.

Status: Its color is somehow blackened, with some white areas including some jungles and places difficult to navigate, especially for those overlooking Al-Mufajrin. On the day of the conquest, the site was the place where the famous battle of Khindamah took place. As Khalid bin Al-Walid, may Allah be pleased with him, clashed with some of the polytheists of Mecca, and defeated them.

 

Valley of Bani Hashim (Mecca Library)

It is known as the valley of Ali, may Allah bless him and his people, and the valley of Abu Talib, located between the Mount of Abu Qubays to the north and the Mount Khandamah. It was the living place of Banu Hashim. Qattan, may Allah have mercy on him, who passed in the year 1370 AH, had bought the library of Sheikh Majid Kurdi and made it the basis of the Mecca library today. Then, the library has expanded by the inclusion of the libraries of the great scholars and literature of Mecca.  It is the valley where Ali bin Abi Talib, may Allah bless him, and Abdullah bin Abbas, may Allah bless with him, were born. Today, only a part of this valley including the historical library is left, while other parts were added to al-Masjid Al-Haram in different expansions of the mosque.

 

Safa Mountain

It is located inside the Grand Mosque on the southeastern side of the Kaaba, facing the corner of the Black Stone, which is a rocky mound that was connected to Abu Qubays Mountain. It marks the beginning of Mas'aa or the walking space from the south. Allah Almighty said: (Indeed, as-safa and al-Marwah are among the symbols of Allah.)

And His Prophet said: “Begin with what Allah had begun with”. Thus, it became obligatory to begin with Al-Safa and end with Al-Marwah, which is the place on which Hajar, the mother of Prophet Ismail - peace be upon them - descended from when she was searching for water for her son, and from here the walking/seeking between Al-Safa and Al-Marwah became a ritual. The Al-Safa is a broad, smooth stone, with a height of 329 meters above sea level.

 

Marwa Mountain

It is located inside the Grand Mosque on the northeastern side of the Kaaba, and it is a mound of rock that was connected to the edge of Qaiqan Mountain from the southeast. It marks the end of Mas'aa or the seeking/walking space from the north, Allah Almighty said: (Indeed, as-safa and al-Marwah are among the symbols of Allah.) Likewise, the end of Mas'aa or the seeking/walking space. Al-Marwah is a shiny white stone with a height of 317 meters above sea level.

 

Kitchens

Also, known as The Valley of Ibn Amer

Location: It is located to the north-east of The Meccan Sanctuary, and extends from al-Khandamah Mountain all the way to Gaza neighborhood in front of the Arraya Mosque. Today it is called the Valley of Amer, but the correct name is the valley of Ibn Amer.

Status: The name is attributed to Abdullah bin Amer bin Kariz al-Qurashi, may Allah be pleased with him, the venerable companion and the blessed Musqa'a, who never treated a land without water springing out of it. 

It is narrated that the king of Yemen had visited this place and slaughtered camels and cooked them there, so was the name ‘Kitchens’ originated.

 

Kada

It is located at the upper end of Mecca in the year of the conquest, known today as Al-Hajjun neighborhood. It connects between Wadi Ibrahim, peace be upon him, and Wadi Dhi Tuwa (in the past), and today, between the Al-Hajjun neighborhood and the Al-Otaibi neighborhood. The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) entered Mecca from the side of Kada, in the year of the conquest. An Arabian Poet Hassan bin Thabit, may Allah be pleased with him, composed a poem on it, threatening Quraysh:

May we lose our horses, if you don’t see them,
Stirring up dust rushing for Kada

Kada divides the cemetery of the people of Mecca (Al-Ma`lah) into two parts, north and south. It was said that Prophet Ibrahim, peace be upon him, stood there when he prayed for his descendants. It has been a rocky arduous path, with the successive governments paving their sides and facilitating them until they became easy to walk.

 

Khalifa Mountain

Height: 20 m

The place: It is located to the south of Masjid Al-Haram, 300 meters away, overlooking Ajyad Al-Kabeer, opposite King Abdulaziz Gate, one of the gates of Masjid Al-Haram.

Status: Al-Azraqi said: it is the mountain which the nonbelievers climbed on the day of the conquest of Mecca, looking at the Prophet and his companions.  The mountain was called in the Jahiliyya: Keda, and it is called al-Meghah Mountain, before being recently named ‘The Castle Mountain’, in reference to the castle that was built on it in 1196 AH. Cannons in Ramadan used be fired from there until the year 1360 AH. But, they were removed in 1422 AH, and in its place was built the King Abdulaziz endowment. Underneath it, two long tunnels were built, connecting between Bab al-Malek Square and Kuda, in addition to two wide tunnels under the castle linking Al-Misfalah and Ajyad Al-Kabeer.

 

Al-Maythab Mountain

Location: It is located to the south of Masjid Al-Haram on the Third Ring Road.

Status: Al-Fakihi said: It extends from Thanyat Kuda path to the bottom of al-Ramdah (Qouz al-Maksa), and there is a corridor that holds water. Al-Maythab Mountain faces Thubair al-Za’aj from the south-west, separated by Ibrahim valley, and it faces Al-Sard Mountain from the north. However, it is separated from the mountain range of Mecca by Re’A Kuda, and it overlooks Al-Misfalah from the south and the Qouz al-Maksa from the east.

The Mountain overlooks the Khum well, which was once dug by Ibn Kaab bin Luai in the past. Today, it overlooks the Zamzam factory project, even located in its quilt and its interior.

 

Ramadah Mountain (Jazan Mountain)

Location: It is located to the south of Masjid al-Haram on the Third Ring Road and overlooks Ibrahim Al Khalil Street.

The Status: A part of the eastern Maythab Mountain, in which there was a spring, where the water gathered. There was a dome on which there were houses for people from Bani Makhzum, and Bani Jamah from Quraysh, and in the back of the dune was the valley of Amr bin Abdullah bin Safwan al-Jamhi, with a well-known well called Talub. Later on, Ramdah Mountain was called by Al-Maksah. For some of the princes of Makkah in the past used to their aides to collect taxes from the people of Yemen, because that place is their entrance to Makkah, and after that, the term has be altered by public tongues, and it has been called: Al-Naksa, or Qawz al-Naksa. Currently, it is inhabited after being connected by urbanization, and work is underway to develop it.

 

Al-Ayr Mountain

Location: It is located to the left of the road leading to Mina, after the King Abdulaziz Mosque in al-Ma'badah, facing al-Aira Mountain from the northwestern side.

Status: The Mountain overlooks al-Abtah (al-Ma'abdah today) from the north, and overlooks thaniyat Azakhir path from the east. Among his old names: Dhul-Araakat, and it is called today: al-Ma'abdah. While others call it al-Qalaa (Citadel) Mountain, after the castle that was built in the prosperous Saudi era in 1345 AH and rises at its tip. The Mountain, today, divides between Al-Ijabah neighborhood and Al-Khansa neighborhood (originally known as Al-Akhnis). Stone stairs were used to climb to the castle to transfer supplies to the guards... Meanwhile, Al-Ma'abdah neighborhood housed King Abdulaziz Al Saud and King Saud bin Abdulaziz, for it also houses the palace of King Faisal bin Abdulaziz, May Allah have mercy on them.

 

Al-Aira Mountain

Location: It is located to the right of the way leading to Mina, after the King Abdulaziz Mosque in al-Ma'badah, facing the mountain of Al-Ayr from the southeastern side.

The Status: The Mountain is located between Al-Hajjun and Mina, located to the right of the way leading to Mina, separating Al-Rawda neighborhood and Al-Malawi neighborhood, and overlooking King Faisal's palace, which is today is the headquarters of Makkah Province Principality.

Among its names: Jabal al-Shaibi, after a well dug by one of the Banu Shaybah at the foot of the mountain, and it is also called: the mountain of the curve, because the valley bends in front of it and turns.

 

Saqqar Mountain

Location: the mountain overlooks the Al-Khansa neighborhood from the west, and large parts of it are built and inhabited.

Status: Saqqar is the mountain that overlooks the palace of Ja`far bin Yahya bin Khalid bin Baramak, and it houses the Banu Quraysh, then Salih Ibn Al-Abbas bought it, changing its name to: Al-Mustaqqar, and in it the poet says:

 

Al-Khatam Mountain

Location: It is located between the King Faisal Hospital in Al-Shasha and the Al-Rawda neighborhood, across from Al-Airah Mountain from its eastern side, where the ice factories are built today. It is the closest separate mountain between Al-Aira Mountain and Al-Ayr Mountain. 

 

The Mountains of Muzdalifah

The place: They are located to the southeast of Al-Mash'ar Al-Haram (The Sacred Grove) in Muzdalifah, on the road coming from Arafat.

Status: They are the boundary of Muzdalifah from the east, and the road that passes through them is called Mazmeen. The name is derived from “Izdalaf” in Arabic, which means gathering or coming close meeting. It is located inside the sacred precincts of Mecca.

 

Quzah Mountain

Location: It is situated next to Masjid Mashar al-Haram in Muzdalifah.

The Status: It was named after a cylinder of lighthouse-like stones that was burned with wax in the past, and it is now a small mountain at the edge of Muzdalifah from the south, southwest of Al-Mash'ar Al-Haram (The Sacred Grove). On which a palace for His Majesty King Abdulaziz was built in 1364 AH, and the building is still standing after renovation and renewal. A road has been paved between it that branches into two paths, one of them leads to Dhaba (the way of the Prophet towards Arafat), and the other leads to A-Mazem (the way of the Prophet towards Muzdalifah). In pre-Islamic times, Qazah Mountain was known as al-Muqdah, because a fire was lit on its tip on the night of the descent from Arafah.

 

Kaaba Mountain

Altitude: 330 m

Location: It is located northwest of Masjid al-Haram, with Thaniyat Kuda (Re’A Rassam) separating it from the end of Jabal Qaiqa'an, and Thaniyat al-Hazaa (Re’A Hazah) separating it from Omar Mountain.

Status: The Mountain overlooks the Dhi Tuwa Valley to the west, and Re’A Rassam from the southwest. Al-Fakihi mentions in a long hadith that: Abdullah bin Al-Zubair, May Allah be pleased with him, at the time of the building of Kaaba, asked the scholars of Makkah: Where did Quraysh get the stones of the Kaaba from? Among the mountains, they mentioned is the one on the road to Jeddah that overlooks Dhi Tuwa, called Hillah. Perhaps this was the first time of the cutting of the stone from mountains before the story of the second time, after the torrent destroyed some of its parts in 1039 AH, for most of the mountain has been removed today, leaving behind only a small part.

 

Shayibah Mountain

Location: It is located to the north of Masjid al-Haram in Al-Shamiya District, between Al-Qarara and Al-Falaq.

Status: In the pre-Islamic era( Jahiliyyah), it was called ‘Wasta’. On it was a castle called ‘Felfel’, built in 1215 AH and transferred to a military hospital, then a telegraph center, and a school to teach wireless management in 1364 AH, then wireless towers were erected on it. The mountain was completely demolished in the current blessed Saudi expansion to be included as a part of Masjid al-Haram.

 

The Mountain of Thubair Ghina

Altitude: 814 meters above sea level

Location: It is located to the northeast of Al-Masjid Al-Haram, facing Hira Mountain, overlooking the neighborhoods of Al Adl and Jabal Al Nur. Separating between them is King Faisal Road heading towards Shara’i and Al Sail (which is Ibrahim valley originally).

Status: It is one of the highest and strongest of Makkah’s Mountains, it overlooks the Al Abtah (Al Maabdah) from the east, and Mina from the north, and Hira Mountain from the south. It was called “Samir” in the Jahiliyyah, then it was called “Sifra”. As for its name “Thubair”, Al-Suhaili said: It is named after a man from Hudhail tribe who died at that mountain.

There are frequent narrations in the biography books that on this mountain the scapegoat fell for our Prophet Ishmael, peace be upon him, when Ibrahim told his son that he have seen in a dream that he must sacrifice him. Then Ismael replied, “O my dear father! Do as you are commanded. Allah willing, you will find me steadfast”.... “And We ransomed him with a great sacrifice”. In Sahih al-Bukhari, the mother of the believers, Aisha bint Abi Bakr - may Allah be pleased with her- was juxtaposed at this Mountain.

 

The Mountain of Thubair Zanaj

Altitude: 365 meters above sea level

Location: It is Misfalah Moutain that overlooks it from the west, starting from Omar Mountain till Qouz al-Maksa, separating between the entire district of Misfalah and the entire district of Hafayer.

Status: It is a mountain range with several tips, each of which is called by a special name. According to Azraqi and Fakihi, the third century AH, it was narrated that the reason behind its name ‘Zinj’: because the Negroes of Mecca used to cut its woods and play with them. It was named by the owner of Al-Jamea Al-Latif, In Dhuhaira, 10th century AH: the Nubian Mountain. And it is not far from the description of the tenth century, as it indicates that it has been inhabited since ancient times, due to its importance and closeness to the Meccan Sanctuary. In our recent times, it is narrated that some of its parts are named as: the Camel Mountain, which is adjacent to Omar Mountain from the southeast, and the camel mountain resembles in its shape a camel, which the children of Mecca used to climb to play, followed by Sharshaf Mountain. For it is said that the women of that mountain used to wear sharshaf (black gowns). Thus, it was called that name, then it is followed by the aforementioned ‘Nuba’ name.  

 

The Mountain of Thubair al-Nasa'

Altitude: 884 meters above sea level

Location: It is the mountain that overlooks Al Mash'ar Al-Haram from the northern side, and it represents the northern border of Muzdalifah, and today it is called Mount Muzdalifah.

Status: The first mountain on which the sun rises in Muzdalifah. For Jahilia people used to stay at Muzdalifah until the sun rises on the top of Thubair. However, the Prophet (PBUH) contradicted them and stayed at Muzdalifah until the dawn breaks, before the sunrise. According to clerics, this is Sunnah, to stay at Muzdalifah until the dawn breaks, before sunrise. As for the name, the term ‘Nasa’ in Arabic means an all-pure white, yellow or red color.

 

Thabair Al-Araj (Al-Taraki)

Altitude: 971 m above sea level

Location: It is located to the north east of Makkah Al-Mukarramah, and today it overlooks the Lower Shari’a neighborhood from the southern side.

Status: the Mountain is visible to whoever heads to Mecca though al-Sayl road. Upon reaching Al-Alamein, on the left side, one would be able to view its highest tip. On the eastern side, it is connected to Asla’ Mountain. On the southern side is Ashear, the plural of Shuara’, which are Mountains located between al-Saqia valley to the west and Ad-Dayqah valley to the east, the last of which is al-Khuttam mountain to the south. On its northern and eastern slopes, the sacred precincts of Mecca. One of its valleys that still extends from it to the north on the lands of low-income people is still called: Al-Araj Valley.

 

Al-Sabah Mountain

Altitude: 535 m

Location: It is located between Al-Aziziyah and Mina Mash'ar, constituting the southern border of Al-Mash'ar, on which the Royal palaces are built today.  

Status: In Sahih Al-Bukhari, Abdullah bin Masoud Al-Hudhali narrated: While we were with the Messenger of Allah in a cave, Surat “Wal Mursalat” was revealed to him and we received it directly from his mouth as soon as he had received the revelation. Suddenly a snake came out and the Messenger of Allah said, “Get at it and kill it but it outstripped us. Allah Apostle said, “it has escaped your evil, as you too, have escaped its.” Therefore, it is narrated that the cave mentioned in the latter Hadith is located at the base of Al-Sabeh Mountain, and the southwestern part of the mountain is known today as Al-Mursalat neighborhood, in attribution to the aforementioned story. At the foot of Al-Sabah Mountain, Al-Khaif Mosque and its mihrab are the place of the Prophet’s prayer with his companions during the days of Al-Tashreeq in the farewell pilgrimage in the tenth year of migration. “Mina is stretched between two mountains: one of them is Thabair (the part of which overlooks Mina is called Al-Qabil), and the other is Al-Sabah.

 

Mount Al-Qabil

Location: It is the northern border of Mina, at the base of Thubair Mountain, facing Al-Sabeh Mountain.

Status: It faces Thubair Ghinaa or Thubair al-Athbara from the south, to the left of whoever heads towards the Al Khaif Mosque.

 

Aqaba Valley

Location: It is located to the north of Mina, on the way to the Grand Mosque of Mecca (Masjid Al-Haram).

Status: It witnessed the first and second Aqaba pledge of allegiance between the Prophet (PBUH) and the Ansar, ahead the Prophet’s migration. The valley runs from the direction of Thabair Mountain and is called Aqaba valley or Al-Bayaa (the pledge) valley, according to Al-Azraqi or Al-Ansar valley after the famous story of the Ansar pledge of allegiance to the Prophet (PBUH). In this place, the Abbasid Caliph Abu Jaafar Al-Mansour built a mosque called the Al-Bayaa Mosque in 144 AH, while the mountain itself was demolished in 1428 AH as part of the development project of the Jamarat facility.

 

Sard Mountain

Altitude: 410 m

Location: It is located between the Batha Quraysh district and the Al-Kakiyyah district Southern Mecca. It is an average height mountain facing Thowr Mountain from the west, separated from Re’A Mithab mountain range by  Batha’ Quraish. Bordered by Mithab Mountain from the north, Makasah from the east yet separated from it by the third ring road.  

Status: The procession of the Prophet’s migration passed over the road located between the Mountain and Libin Mountain after leaving behind the cave of Thowr.  On its southern side there is a small peak called Sami Al-Manzar, where Quraysh used to stay awaiting their goods coming from Yemen.

 

Niswa Mountain

Altitude: 336 m

Location: it is located on the southern road of Kuda (the third ring road) to the right of way heading to Muzdalifah, after the Al-Surur station and before the Al-Nour Hospital, opposite the refinery tunnels from the side of Thowr, and it is known today as Al-Maskhutta.

Status: According to Al-Azraqi and Al-Fakihi, a story has been going on a woman who became pregnant out of the wedlock. As the time to deliver her baby approached, she took to this mountain with some women kissing her and standing behind her back. Therefore, it is said they have all been deformed at this place – Allah knows best, hence the name originated.

 

Mount Al-Maqtaa

Altitude: 300 meters above sea level

Location: It is located in the northeastern part of Makkah Al-Mukarramah in the Al-Sharai’ district today, to the left of the way leading to Al-Sail Al-Kabeer through King Faisal Road.

 

Al-Lubinat Mountains

Altitude: 480 m

Location: It is located 4 km southwest of Makkah. Situated in the north of Arnah valley.

Status: a low-height mountain range southwest of Mecca, ten miles away from Al-Misfalah then extends to the south. The first Mountain of which is called Lubin the Younger, and the last of it is Lubin the Great. It’s somewhat reddish in color and the entire mountain range is called ‘Lubinat’. It is bordered by Sail Arna from the south, and the old road of Yemen from the east. However, it is within the sacred precincts of Mecca. The procession of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) passed between Lubinat and Sard Mountain heading west after leaving behind Thowr on the journey of emigration.

 

Kebkab Mountain

Altitude: Approximately 1750 meters above sea level

Location: Kebkab is a great mountain occupying the angle between Naaman valley and the plain of ‘Arafa and Al-Bajidi. Engulfing Maghmas plain from the east, yet one of its western valleys is located in Dhi Majaz Market, extending for over 30 km. 

Status: It overlooks Mawqaf Mountain in Arafa and Arnah valley to the west and the north, with many valleys flow from it, including Dhu al-Majaz, Wasiq, Khiyam, and Wadi al-Kabakiya. It was mentioned in pre-Islamic and Islamic poetry alike, a symbol for prestige and pride. As well as mentioned in biography and literary books indicating its historical depth. The Poet says:

Some howdahs to some verdant palm groves head

Some cross over mount ‘Kebab’; so bleak, so dead

Mount Elal

Altitude: 372 m.

Location: The Mount of Mawqif in Arafah, which is the most famous name among the Arabs in ancient times, situated east of Arafat, misled by Mount Kebkeb whose part there is called ‘Saada’, which takes a curved shape on its eastern and northwestern sides.

Status: It is a famous landmark east to Arafat, which is  a small mountain, located to the east of Arafat between Road no. 7 and Road no. 8, with a total height of 372 meters and a height of 65 meters from the ground surrounding it. Almost surrounded by Zubaida water stream. During the Farwell Pilgrimage, The Prophet (PBUH) stood at its eastern side and said: “I stationed here, and the whole Arafah is the place of station”. Among its other names: Mount Arafat, Jabal al-Nabit, Jabal al-Qurain, and Jabal al-Tawbah.

 

Mount Baroud

Location: north of Masjid al-Haram on the road to Medina, overlooking the Shuhada district from the west, and it is precisely to the left of the way heading towards the Mosque of Sayyida Aisha - may Allah be pleased with her – through Taneem before reaching the Third Ring Road.

Status: It is called Mount Shahid (the Martyr Mountain), in which Ashuhada district is located toady, in reference to the martyrs of the trap battle that took place on the day of Tarwiyah (the 8th of Dhul Hijjah) in the year 169 AH among the Alawites. In which Al-Hussein bin Ali bin Al-Hassan bin Ali bin Abi Talib and most of his followers were martyred, after having declared their disobedience to the Abbasid state. It is believed to be the most horrific after Karbala, for the corpses remained on the ground until eaten by lions.

 

Al-Maqla’ Mountain

Height: 298 m

Location: northwest of Masjid Al-Haram, to the right of the way leading to the city in the Abu Lahab area, and overlooks Re’Abu Lahab and Tuwa valley.

Status: It is narrated that: It is where The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) wept when he emigrated with Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq - may Allah be pleased with him - to Medina. The mountain would specifically be to your right if you entered the Abu Labeb area.

 

Muslim Mountain

Altitude: 200 meters above sea level

Location: It is the mountain that borders the Jarwal neighborhood from the east, and to the west of it is Al-Biban Street and the Saudi Post Office. Re’A Abu Lahab is located to the north of the mountain, while Al-Tayseer neighborhood to the south. Only a small part of the mountain was left after it went most of it has been included in the expansion projects of the Meccan Sanctuary.

Status: It is the mountain from which the Prophet (PBUH) and Abu Bakr - may Allah be pleased with him - departed on the night of Hijra (emigration), so he was called Muslim Mountain.  Where they met them with Asma bint Abi Bakr - may Allah be pleased with her. The mountain overlooks Jeddah road.

 

Hashas Mountain

Location: It is the mountain to the right of Re'A Kohl, and it overlooks the Al-Zahir neighborhood from the dawn of the sun. Today, it houses the Malqa neighborhood, and its northwestern side is called Abu Madafa.

Status: At the origin of this mountain is the cemetery of emigrants. Al-Azraqi narrated that Janda bin Abi Damra bin Abi Al-Aas, may Allah be pleased with him, complained and feared for himself, thus emigrated to Madinah. Yet, he passed away on his way is place and was buried there. The incident on which Al-Mighty Allah said: “Whoever emigrates in the cause of Allag will find safe havens and bountiful resources throughout the earth. Those who leave their homes and die while emigrating to Allah and His Messenger – their reward has already been secured with Allah. And Allah is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful”. (Surah An-Nisa, Verse 100). The cemetery is about 200 meters away from the beginning of the bridge, cutting it in half by a 6-meters-wide road, so the cemetery became like two cemeteries, enclosed by a wall of as a human being, with the installation of two iron doors.

The poet said:

I wish I could know,

Is the wide-eyed gazelle of Al-Hashas,

Saddened by our departure

 

Azakhar Mountain

Height: 364 m.

Location: It is located to the north of Masjid Al-Haram and to the north of the Al-Ma'alla Cemeteries, forming a mountain range that overlooks Al-Abtah from the north, the Hajj Street and al-Ma'badah area from the west.

Status: Originally, it is the mountain connected to Al-Hajjun from the north-east, overlooking Wadi Fakh from the south. Today, the name was limited to that thaniyah (mountain path) that connects between the head of Wadi Fakh and Al-Abtah in Makkah, and it is called Re'A Zakher, and it is the thaniyah from which the Messenger of Allah entered Makkah on the day of the conquest. From this place one could see Jalil valley from the northeast pouring from Hira into the head of Fakh.

 

The report on historical sites prepared by the following tour guides:

Professor / Abdulaziz bin Mohammed Rafi Al-Din Bakhsh

 (Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Tourist Guides Union Association)

Professor / Fawzi bin Saad bin Mallah Al-Matrafi

 (Member of the Board of Directors of the Tourist Guides Union Association)

 

Official sponsor:

Bin Dajam Steel Factory

 

Satellite Sponsor:

Al-Wessam Satellite Channel

 

Partners in making the visit a success:

Tourist Guide Union Association

Abu Sarhad Transport Company

The Online al- Wajiha Newspaper

 

The Work Team

Mr. Jaloud Bin Dakhil (General Supervisor)

Mr. Talal Hassan Khalifa (Visiting Coordinator)

Mr. Ali bin Wahidi Al-Zahrani

Mr. Ali bin Awad Al Saif

Mr. Saad bin Muhammad Al-Drees

Mr. Hassan bin Faleh Al-Nahsi

 

الكلمات الدلالية :

اليوم, الحرام, الملك, المسجد, الجبل, النبي, عبدالعزيز, المكان:, الكعبة, المكانة:, الطريق, البحر, متراً, الشرقية, الناحية, الشمال, الأرض, السلام, الحرم, المكانة, إبراهيم, الجنوب, الارتفاع:, المعابدة, الجهة, الصفا, الشعب, المكرمة, المكان, الجنوبية, الذاهب, قديماً, الشمالية, الجاهلية, ارتفاعه, المقدسة, النبوية, الغربية, عليها, الموسوعة, مقبرة, الشرقي, وكذلك, المشرف, الحجر, الفريق, الوادي, ويشرف, قديما, مساحة, المباركة, الموضع, الماء, الناس, والمروة, للمسجد, القرن, سيدنا, الشمالي, العاصمة, ويبلغ, الثالث, منطقة, الظهران, مزدلفة, المشعر, الثنية, الحجون, الفتح, الغربي, الهجرة, عرفات, الدولة, الأبطح, وكانت, مقابل, الارتفاع, يقابل, ويسمى, السيدة, عبارة, عنهما, عبدالله, العام, المملكة, نهاية, بينهما, المدينة, إسماعيل, الخارج, الجبال, المسعى, المشاعر, الحجاج, عائشة, الدائري, الغار, القلعة, الشرق, الجموم, المعلاة, الرسول, الساعة, السعودي, زبيدة, السعودية, أمانة, أثناء, مكانه, مجموعة, البيت, اليمن, التسمية, تسميته, سلسلة, السعي, الحرام،, السليمانية, الأزرقي, القبلة, ثلاثة, الملكي, مطلاً, الجمرات, الأسود, العقبة, الحديبية, التاريخية, أخشبي, الجليل, الغرب, بمسجد, المنورة, العالم, كانوا, الصحابي, الأقوال, الشيخ, التوسعة, الوداع, أذاخر, أجياد, السقاف, وفيها, بالنسبة, شعائر, الجنوب،, أعلاه, الهجري, مشروع, أحدهما, التاريخ, المؤمنين, الشمال،, الشرائع, المسفلة, الركن, تقريباً, السيرة, تسمية, ويقابل, الواحد, عندما, الشرق،, العهد, القصر, النور, أحياء, ووادي, مكتبة, المتجه, المتحف, العمل, العدل, الجزء, وارتفاعه, العيرة, البناء, وعليه, إليها, أسمائه, الصديق, الجنة, متصلة, البيعة, شمالاً, عندها, الصابح, للهجرة, الإسلامية, الخنساء, الروضة, والآخر, الحرم،, حوالي, الصخور, الكريم, المبنى, أيضاً, شهرته, الخيف, الشهداء, وعرضه, الاستيعابية, الطاقة, إدارة, الإجابة, الزيارة, الاستاذ, غيناء, يتكون, الإسلامي, تعالى, سفيان, القديم, العزيزية, الشكل, المكي, المرشدين, العمران, المطابخ, العتيبية, الشاعر:, جبلية, والذي, بطحاء, ويقال, الخطم, كثيرة, الميثب, الكعبة،, توسعة, الحارث, الأولى, الشرقية., المشهور, وتعرف, مستطيل, الأمين, عرفات،, ارتفاع, التقاء, ولذلك, العراق, المعماري, ميدان, السياحيين, لونها, يحتويه, تعتبر, الميم, المزدلفة, ومزدلفة, المعلم, يأتيها, منتصف, الشمس،, العاشر, الرأس, تأسيس, قرابة, الحالية, الرابع, قُعيقعان, يتوسط,  مساحة, العباسي, الخليفة, الأسعد, ويعرف, السيل, المكرمة., يمينك, الأرض،, المدافع, الشامية, الملون, العير, البئر, المنحنى, رحمهم, والملك, المواقع, ارتبطت, اتجاه, المبارك, الموقع, الفاكهي:, تعالى:, سفوحه, صخرية, جمعية, بعدما, المنطقة, السنة, الجمل, الواقعة, للحرم, مشرفا, الباب, اتحاد, والمكان, جلعود, التذكارية, الإسلام, أبراج, قعيقعان, قريش،, يتعبد, الأحمر, الأشهر, يقارب, الأصل, الثاني, جبلين, القرآن, بعدها, حجارة, أودية, الخليل, بالسكان, المأهولة, إنشاء, القديمة, المعالم, بوادي, ومواضع, الشريف, أصبحت, الشيبي, مسافة, الحاج, علماء, الخندمة, أقفرت, الكبير, وعرفة, الخاص, الدين, المشرفة, الدعوة, شهيرة, تاريخ, محطات, التنعيم, الأستاذ, البياضية, والبناء, الصغير, مستشفى, المباني, الغرب،, العلوي, الجنوبي, قائماً, والثنية, والقصر, الشراشف،, أسماء, الراعي, موعدها, الموضع،, هذيل،, اللبينات, تحديدا, عدمنا, أعمال, منتهى, والأبطح, العلوية, للقلعة, مساحته, إضافة, وتعتلي, (بدايتها, وضربت, #  , يستقبل, مطوية, واسطة, الإجابة), الجعفرية, فالبطحاء, فالركن, للزيارة:, خيلنا, بالمعابدة, النقع, والفاكهي, الطراز, الزاخر, والتسمية, أصلاً, حجرية, الصعود, وتسهلها, الاسم, كنانة, قسمين, الحرم., معاوية, المسلك, الشعر, بالحرم, البرج, الكبيرة, شعابه, الواجهة, الهلال, فوّهة, بالفتح, لذريته, وبلدية, الهمزية, وجنوبي, فأصبحت, قصيدته, غُراب, الوقود, خرمان, الحجاز, اشتهر, شمالي, الحكومات, موضعه, جدرانه, يسارك, ويشكل, عبدالرحمن, الخارجية, الشمس, جاهلية, الفيصلية, جوانبها, الحديثة, ويسيل, وتمتد, الحجم, المقطع, لتوصيل, الحصحاص, أمراء, للقصة, الحبشي, صغيرة, النخلة, بالرخام, المتعاقبة, جنوبه, وقمته, باثنين, لأبصرنا, ثالثهما, الحدث, الأعظم, قدميه, أحدهم, وقصته, المتر, معروفة, وجودهما, بفضله, القويم, أرجاء, ابتداء, القادم, فاطمة, البارة, الأوسط, ميمونة, الصلاة, شماله, واقعا, الظهران،, صاحبها, أمتار, وفتحة, بأعلى, النزول, نعمان, عظيمة, الجانب, المأزم, يتفرع, الشمالي،, بالشمع, لجلالة, ترميمه, بالأخشب, العين, انطلق, وبطحاء, القرى, للغار, اختبأ, وللغار, بحدوده, وبأسفله, لتعارف, الأكبر, الموقف, والأخشب, حصاني, أهمها:, الله)., واليوم, للحرم،, اليوم:, عامر،, اليوم،, (المعابدة), والحجون،, رمضان, الشرقي،, المفجر, جنوبا, الفتح،, وقعيقعان،, يربطان, خليفة, السرد, حفرها, وبينه, ومنها, الرسام،, المسلك،, الرقيات:, قديما،, المدينة., العبادي, جرول،, أجزاء, الجدار, الجران, واحدة, الناقة, والمسجد, حالياً, المجاز, يعتبر, السير, الجعرانة, محافظة, أسمائه:, بعضها, الأرض., تقريبا،, ثبيرا, بالمعابدة،, واسمه:, الغربية., النور،, العزيز،, بالشميسي, المعابدة،, الوحي،, المنارة, لأسطوانة, البخاري, ففداه, تجاور, الفاكهي, رواية, الآية, لسيدنا, الرخم, المعروفة, للطائر, يفارق, الفداء, يقابله, وبينهما, فتحرك, بالسماء, وعثمان, قالوا, وطلحة, ملساء, زاوية, انحداراً, شديداً, الأخذ, انحداره, للشجرة, إلباس, إمارة, أمامه, العربية, القصور, الجديد, لانحناء, ويقابله, فالعير, فالخطم, فالحصر, فالعيرة, فالطاهر, بُنيت, السيول, وأمنعها, شوامخ, لقلته, الهذلي, أطراف, حِراء, ناحية, الزاهر, الرجل, المكاسة،, المقبرة, الغربي،, والزبير, عُرنة, منهما, مسيرة, المشروع, توفير, القلب, عملية, الخيام, بحوالي, أجزائها, مستشفيات, الرحمن, القطار, للقطار, باتجاه, بمزدلفة, التاسع, صلاتي, بجانب, اجتمع, جمعاً, بالساعة, مُزدلفة, تسميتها, الاجتماع, تتكون, للحجيج, والأنصار, والثانية, الأول, المنصور, مسجداً, للعيان, الهذلي:, وموضع, أجمعين, قريباً, الرسام, ثبير،, أركان, مناسك, الجسر, ويوجد, العباسية, توسعته, الكبرى, الجمرة, الطبي, بالمشاعر, التروية, منشأة, للإخلاء, المؤن, الفيل, المعروف, ولونه, والحجون, وشمالاً, شرقاً, السمرة, الياقوتة, الثلج, التنقل, مجاهل, وعندما, للكعبة, بابان, الأمطار, والسيول, الشركة, والوفد, مساحات, منسوب, صحيفة, وبحذائه, الربوة, بأصله, يواقيت, موقعة, وعبدالله, المشرفة., لكبار, الخاصة, وبقيت, المكتبة, القرشي, لعبدالله, الراية, الغزة, المكتبات, الأمانة, معالي, الزبير, الوليد, بالخندمة, استقبالهم, مشركي, فجعلها, ومساكنهم, (مكتبة, فهزمهم, أهمها, الاستقبال, ترتقي, والانتهاء, بالصفا, لزيارة, وتهبط, الحرام., الأملس, العريض, والصفا, عليهما, انتقل, البدء, طوابق, جبريل, تبودلت, الهدايا, الثانية, ويبعد, ابدأوا, بداية, متعددة, قٌبيس, وتطوير, أنحاء, الطواف, الأبيض, حافته, الإحرام, التعاون, جبالها, العديد, بالبناء, ودخول, التاريخية., النصف, مواقع, الأخرى, والنهاية, الشوط, المروة, المناطق, الجبلية, وعندها,  وفي, بزيارة, السكان, والمسقاء, زيارة, المصادر, وقطورا, المتقدمة, والشمال, ثنيتي, عمارة, وآثار, دخيّل, غلبوا, الجرهمي, قعقعت, الرسمي, تحاربوا, بقعيقعان, خلاله, امتداد, بعلامات, وسفوحه, المرافق, أجزائه, وتسمياتها, الأحياء, الفلق, مناطق, غرباً, باسمه, لانقسام, وطبخها, كيوبيديا, لوادي, بعرفة, الأسلحة, لقدوم, الاسلامية, فتيان, الإبل
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