The World QPEDIA Encyclopedia visit to the Asir region: the first visit / Sarat Abidah Governorate Part3on
- 2020-01-12 23:31:08
The weekly local markets were established throughout the region, and the buying and selling operations in those markets were carried out in cash or term, according to the agreement and trust between the seller and the buyer, by the tribe, and he is the person chosen by both the buyer and the seller, as a guarantor for the buyer until he over the agreed amount.
Also, sales in these markets in the past were carried out through bartering, as if the buyer provided half a container of corn for a , a kilogram of fruit, and so on. These markets have also played a large role in getting to know each other, and documenting the old links and ties between friends from the various villages surrounding the market. The markets were once a local place to announce local news and announcements. Likewise, the old and new markets are considered a center for broadcasting the word of truth on the part of the preachers, in order to urge people to obey and avoid violations of the law of God. Through these markets, they displayed all agricultural products, all kinds of animal wealth, in addition to jewelry and other trade offers. And before the Saudi era, every tribe was protecting its market from any problems that might occur in it, and resolving it even if the matter required intervention to solve it with the usage of weapons.
There were a number of markets frequented by people and tribes, as well as by the residents of the villages near these markets. And the shops on both sides of the market, in the middle of a large yard, and those shops in the lower floors of mud houses and are often rented symbolic wages for tribal traders, and some traders from other tribes. As for the square, it was wandering sellers or merchants, who came from distant cities and places. In these markets there were side yards for sellers of camels, sheep, livestock and others.
As for the Saudi era, and in light of the renaissance that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is experiencing, and in light of the renaissance and progress in all fields, the establishment of security - thanks to God Almighty - that our dear homeland lives, the spread of transportation and the establishment of roads that link all the cities and villages of the Kingdom to each other, It had a great impact on facilitating the movement of people from one city to another, as well as the movement of trade and vendors to the main cities; that is why these markets have weakened, and then gradually .
These markets are:
- Bani –Besher Market
- Gomaat Al- Khalaf Market
- Al-Ethnain (Monday) Market
- Tuesday Market –Zahret Bani Besher.
The markets that are still operating are:
1- Khamees Obaidah Market
2- Al-Farsha Market
The process of deciding to establish a market anywhere in the past - before the Saudi era - required security and stability, and providing security and protection for market goers, which is required to establish such markets that were being protected by its people. For every village that has a market, village owners protect that market.
The market of (Khamis Ubaidah) was one of the oldest and largest of these markets, because it is located in the meeting point of a number of roads , and it is considered a major center, as it mediates all villages and tribes, in addition to being a crossing for all commercial caravans and pilgrims caravans whose way is pass through that region. Therefore, the decision to establish the market needed to study, the ability, strength and prestige of this market to preserve its position and importance, and guarantee people's money and lives.
The responsible persons interested in establishing this market have been able to provide what is necessary for its establishment, in terms of the strategic location and the necessary protection for it.
It is located over the western shield, and it formed in the third time due to the receding of the Red Sea, and reaches its peak in the south at the Yemen Plateau due to its presence in the refractive joint, and the presence of the solid plateau of the Danakel in Djibouti, which led to the barracking and direction of the north-south highlands, and the width of this belt ranges between (40 and 140) km. It is bounded on the west by the coastal plain, on the east by the plateau of Al-Jumah, then by the Hejaz plateau, then by the plateau of Asir, then by the Asir plateau, then by the Najran plateau, and these are the western plateau that surround the western highlands. The maximum height of these heights in the Kingdom is Jabal Al-Souda (3248) meters, divided on the Surat Mountains from Yemen to Al-Hada in Taif, then the Hejaz Mountains which are wider and less elevated then the mountains of Medin in the north, and each group is divided into sub-groups that can be divided into two parts from the west To the east:
- Coastal chain: It is less elevated
- The main chain: the western highlands.
It is formed by a sudden explosion towards the Red Sea, and gradually towards the east, and the peak called Al Sha'af - which is the lines of dividing water - closer to the Red Sea, and therefore the valleys of the East are wide and slow, such as environment; whereas towards the Red Sea, they are short, narrow and very fast, such as: Sabia And Bish and Jizan and others, and the reason in the height of the Sarawat that it was a dome, and when receding form protrusion edges, and during Movement of spacing and tensile pressure has occurred movement formed the highs
Trees and plants:
Terrain directly controls the environment of plants, as they determine their types. Height and slope, stomachs of valleys and plains are different environments for many types of plants, in addition to other factors, such as the type and depth of soil, and their content of organic matter, moisture, and temperature, the fact that these factors, or some of them, are the cause of the spread of species, or several types in The environment without the other, and these environments may form different groups of plants that adapt to each other, and are with other forms of life, a vital system that each needs to the other; and others are characterized by their great ability to adapt quickly in several places varying in height or proximity to the sea surface, or High temperature ECO Limited impact on the spread. While we find that for juniper plants height is the most important factor in its growth, as well as temperature. It grows in higher places, and its growth and sovereignty increase over other groups as the height increases, so its sovereignty is almost absolute over other plants when the height reaches 3000 meters above sea level.
Forests spread areas
The forests spread in the Asir region is concentrated on the Sarwat mountain range and its eastern and western slopes, and juniper trees form the backbone of these groups because of the characteristics of this tree, which made it the most widespread, in addition to the suitability of these places. Juniper trees are perennial, up to 800 years old, if not subject to tampering and removal.
There are two types of juniper trees, the first is branched, and the second is a pyramidal shape; the juniper leaves are needle, which fall after their full age, although the tree is evergreen, and these leaves contribute to the improvement of the properties of the surrounding soil.
Forests in the region can be classified into three sections:
First: highland forests
Juniper trees form most of these forests, and they mix with some other species, especially in places of low height, such as wild olives and tales.
Second: the western slopes and plains:
These rugged areas are very steep, they form a valley at the end, then the flat areas along the Red Sea, where olive trees are spread, and several types of acacia, and are mixed with juniper trees in high places, and with the ideals and Sidr in the valleys, where the Sidr trees are of great importance to beekeepers Because Sidr honey is one of the most expensive types. The closer to the Red Sea coast, the more dom and ark trees are multiplied, and they are mixed with acacia species, such as the Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis subsp. Heteracantha
Third: Eastern Plains Forests:
These forests are tree clusters that are concentrated in the valleys and their proximity, and the gradual decline of these areas affects the spread of plant types, so the sorghum trees are mixed with juniper trees in the lower elevated places, and in the valleys, the trees of the Tamarix are more prevalent, because these plants need more quantities of water While we find Acacia tortilis subsp. Heteracantha trees, they are found in semi-arid places on the eastern plains of Sarawat Mountains Chain.
Education in Sarat Abidah Educational Governorate in the second half of the fourteenth century H:
Educational institutions prior to the unification of the kingdom were very few throughout the kingdom in general, and in Sarat Abidah in particular, with the exception of Hijaz, which had a kind of organized teaching, because of the presence of the Two Holy Mosques. The education in Sarat Abidah was to preach jurists and scholars, and students of science, and guide them to people in the markets and mosques, and sometimes there were those who were based on the education of boys in his village, or in his residence, and was called the headquarters designated for education at the beginning of the second half of the fourteenth century AH Several names, the most famous of which are a book and a collection of books, a school or a sign, among other names, whose circulation varies from place to place. As for the jurist or teacher who is based on teaching students, many names are given to him: the jurist or the Mutawa (Religious Adviser), the Sheikh or the teacher, the grandfather or the teacher, or the uncle, and they also differ from one place to another. King Abdul Aziz - may God have mercy on him - has taken care of education since he established Security in island by uniting it under the name of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia under the banner of monotheism. He realized, since his entry into Riyadh, the importance of unifying the island in one country. Many historians saw that the difficulties he encountered in uniting the Arabian Peninsula did not deter him from his interests in education, so - may God have mercy on him - considered education one of the most important priorities that does not accept delay, for he was a seeker for knowledge, appreciating its importance, even with his many concerns . Naturally, his comprehensive view includes all parts of the poor, resource-limited kingdom, which is made up of stretched and difficult deserts. He was most interested in working in education in accordance with the available human resources and material capabilities, so that society does not stand helpless in front of ignorance, which is a basic building block of poverty and disease. The interest in education at the beginning of the unification of the Kingdom was significant, bearing in mind that the first twenty years of the unification of the Kingdom did not fall into our hands on what indicates the existence of formal schools, but education and work was based on what was prevalent in the presence of the madrasahs of the old mosques, and then the Al-Qarawi schools that were on As follows:
These schools are attributed to Sheikh Abdullah bin Muhammad Al-Qarawi from Unaizah, one of the cities of Qassim, who learned in his hometown, then he traveled to some cities of the great kingdom seeking knowledge at the hands of jurists, to gain more Sharia and linguistic sciences, and he traveled to India to learn by some of its scholars, After his return, Sheikh Muhammad bin Ibrahim Al Sheikh was required. After a while, Sheikh Muhammad Ibrahim Al-Sheikh saw that he spread education in the south of the Kingdom of Arabia in 1358 AH, and he settled in the city of Samtah, opened a school in it, and began to teach people, then expanded to open schools until it included all the Jazan region, and he had A tangible impact in this region was the increase in the number of learners. In the year 1366 AH, Sheikh Al-Qarawi met with the Emir of Asir at the time, Prince Turki Al-Sudairi, and the latter discussed with him the progress of his schools in Jizan. And his activity, Sheikh Al-Qarawi appreciated the proposal of the Emir of Asir region.
The Sheikh sent a telegram to His Majesty King Abdul Aziz - may God have mercy on him - asking permission to allow him to practice work in the Asir region, and approval came from the ٌRoyal Court.
From that date, the Sheikh began his activities in Asir, by contacting with His honor the judge of Abha, Sheikh Abdullah bin Yusuf Al-Wabil, who had seminars in his mosque (a mosque in the middle of the city of Abha at the time), in which he taught the Holy Qur’an and its sciences, Hadith and its sciences, jurisprudence, principles and statutes, Scholars and judges in Asir region graduated from his school , who had a tangible effect in preaching and guidance, including Sheikh Hassan Al-Atami, Sheikh Hashem Al-Naami, Sheikh Abdullah Al-Hakami and many others, and many scholars and sheikhs who had has influence and participation in the scientific renaissance during the past period. Sheikh Al-Qaraawi asked Sheikh Al-Wabel to provide him with a group of geniuses students, to be the nucleus of teachers of Al-Qaraawi Schools in Asir and its annexes. These teachers have taught and Daawa to God under the supervision of Sheikh Al-Qarawi. The Sarat Abidah educational district had great interest from Sheikh Abdullah Al-Qarawi. He visited the governorate, and opened schools in the middle population villages in order to bring together the small neighboring villages, and support the teaching for those in whom he finds competence. Thus, he was spending on these schools from the aid that he received from His Majesty the late King Abdul Aziz. The period of study was in Al-Qarawi schools is not limited to specified number of years due to the different levels of students from one student to another.
As for the school curriculum, it was represented in the noble Qur’an and its refinement, monotheism and jurisprudence, Hadith and calligraphy, and arithmetic. As for spending on the schools of Sheikh Al-Qaraawi, it was initially from his own pocket - according to the circumstances of time and space - and what was provided to him by the king - may God forgive him - and the schools were often located in mosques, and the school benches are sand or gravel , and the school tools are the Wooden boards , ink or charcoal. The schools of Sheikh Al-Qarawi continued until the year 1379 H, when the province began to harvest its fruits, represented by students of knowledge and knowledge who had a good effect in spreading knowledge, so God rewarded Sheikh Abdullah Al-Qarawi for them with the best of reward .
King Abdul Aziz - may God have mercy on him - laid the foundations for the civilizational growth of the Saudi Arabian community according to the methodology of a decree, which was carried out according to the teachings of the message of Islam, and he assigned the tasks of the ministry that was under construction to His Royal Highness Prince Fahd bin Abdel Aziz - Fahd bin Abdel Aziz - may God protect him - as the first pioneer For science and education from the point of overcoming the difficulties, and spreading education in all parts of the Kingdom, and this was what took place in a few years thanks to God, then wisdom, effort, and giving of the first ones, starting from that that the progress of peoples is only accomplished through the progress of education, and the inclusion of the country’s parts. Education witnessed major developments after the year 1373 AH at the horizontal and vertical levels, and it was a sign of horizontal development to expand the opening of schools and increase their facilities to match the amount of students receiving more.
The governorate of Sarat Abidah Education has witnessed an increasing growth in the number of its schools at all levels, to include every community or population, and education has grown vertically through the preparation of appropriate programs that have led to the desired outcomes in the learner's knowledge, skills, and values.
The educational programs preserved the identity of civilized society and its doctrine values, represented in the message of true Islam, and worked to provide it with scientific and intellectual knowledge, to produce generations capable of building the contemporary Saudi Arabian society. Education in Sarat Abidah governorate witnessed a quantitative and qualitative shift in education after 1373 H, especially after the application of the five-year plans initiated by the government since 1390 AH. Every person in this governorate has benefited from it; Education has become accessible and easy to get the chance, thanks to the tremendous efforts made to race with time, to catch up with contemporary civilization, so that the education service has reached all parts of the province in record number of years, perhaps the most widespread of other services.
School health services:
In Sarat Abidah, a school health unit was opened to provide services for students and education personnel. A large segment of education personnel and students benefited from it by providing primary health care to them, in addition to providing vaccinations against epidemic diseases. This unit has provided - to a large extent - health services to students through its field visits to schools, and the examination of the health status of students, especially in the sectors of Tihama and the East.
The school health unit performs basic health tasks by performing the following activities:
Medical examination for the student at the beginning of his entry to primary school, to see the extent of his ability to study, especially his senses that qualify him to enter the school.
Examining the student during his transition from one stage to another and giving him the necessary report for admission to middle or high school.
Follow up on cases that have been admitted to school, and that need care to see how successful they are in continuing their studies.
Providing primary care for education personnel in the governorate and for students as well, and referring cases that need hospitals in the governorate. Monitor and follow up the health status in the school by inspecting the school facilities in general.
Providing vaccinations against epidemic diseases for students, and generalizing this to education personnel in the educational district as well.
Although there was only one unit serving the governorate until the year 1403 H, in addition to the difficulty in generalizing health services for students, considering the geography of the governorate, and the hardness face the students accessing to such services, this unit performed the services entrusted to it to the best standard
Archaeological areas in Sarat Abidah Governorate:
The historical depth of this region makes it rich with archaeological sites of historical value, most of which extend to before Islam, including those dating back to the era of Islam, and those found during successive Islamic civilizations. Some of this can be indicated in the following: -
Inscriptions and Drawings:
They are artistic paintings engraved on the rocks of the mountains, and they are represented in writings in the non-spoken Arabic language, in addition to drawings that express the interests of their architects at that time, and they are drawings, figures, camels, horses, ostriches, and others. These fees are located in Jabal Meshar, near the center of Al-Arqin, which is approximately 30 kilometers away from the governorate headquarters, as well as in Raghad, and Qurn al-Suwaid, near Jabal Meshar. Likewise there are inscriptions in (Dam Al-Jma) west of Sarat Abidah which is mentioned in the Book of Tribes Aseer Umar ibn Fajimah Al-Amrawi mentioned that it was created in the fourth century AD, and he said that there are old inscriptions. We visited Al-Jama Dam to get a close look at the dam during our scientific tour, and found it an old dam that only remained from its minor effects, and time and natural factors have been studied on it, and we hope that it will find interest from the branch of the Ministry of Agriculture and the concerned authorities in the province.