Report of the visit of the World Q-pedia Encyclopedia to Tabuk region on Safar 23, 1442 AH - Part 1

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 - Visiting the province of Tayma and documenting some landmarks, including the well-known Hadaj Taima Well and some archaeological palaces such as the Prince Abdul Karim Bin Rumman Castle, the great archaeological wall, the Alhamraa Palace, and the Al-Radum Palace.

- Visit the old village of Tabuk and have a look at the contents of the old castle, the Al- Sukkar well and the Al-Tawbah Mosque

- Visiting Ibn Asi stable and Museum and exchanging souvenirs.

- Visit the Old Tabuk Museum.

- Visiting Al-Wessam Satellite Channel.

- The channel honored the encyclopedia’s delegation in a grand ceremony.

Signing a joint cooperation agreement between the channel and the encyclopedia, honoring the general supervisor and the accompanying delegation, taking pictures and exchanging souvenirs.

- Visit Astra farms.

- Visiting the Chamber of Commerce in Tabuk and exchanging shields and souvenirs between the chamber and the encyclopedia, in the presence of Mr. Ibrahim Al-Atwi, Chairman of the Chamber's Tourism Committee and a member of the National Tourism Committee.

- Visiting the international olive company and factory

- Lectures at Fahd bin Sultan University.

The delegation was received by:

Doctor: Abdullah Al-Balawi / University Vice President and Student: Faisal Al-Shaman.

(Lecture Coordinator / Member of the Tourism Club)

Walina Al Hujaily (President of the Tourism Club)

Presented by:

Galoud Bin Dokhail

General Supervisor

The delegates of the Encyclopedia:

Mr. / Ali Al-Saif  & Mr. / Khalid Al-Harby

About the goals, constituents and history of tourism

 In the presence of the accompanying encyclopedia delegates

Mr. / Saad AL- Derees

Mr. / Ali Waheedy

Mr. / Telal Khalifa

,the University Vice President

And the university students and the members of tourism club

- Special visit to The Chairman of Chamber of Commerce in his farm.

- Field tours of some of the heritage and archaeological exhibitions, tourism and local factories.

- Encyclopedia's team meeting with members of Apex Tours and Adventure, namely:

Mr. / Bader Al-Zahrany & Mr. / Said Al- Essairy

To collaborate in the success of the next stages of the journey.

- The visit to Haql Governorate, which combines the originality of the past and the beauty of the present, and also combines the plain, the mountain and the sea, as well as overlooking two sister Arab countries, Jordan and Egypt, and the team toured and spotted some sites that benefit the visitor to this precious province.

- Visiting Al-Bada'a governorate.

- Visiting Mughair Shuaib and other heritage and historical sites that will be included in this report.

 - Visiting Maqna, where the springs of Musa, or what is called (Al-tabakha), in the tradition culture of the village where these springs are located

 - Visiting the nearby park overlooking the beach.

- Visiting Tayyib Al-Esm "The good name" Valley and its contents of mountains, reefs, valleys, trees and seas.

- Visiting Sharma.

- A visit to the village of Muwailih, which hosts the historic Al-Muwailih Castle.

- Visiting the historical palace of King Abdulaziz, may God have mercy on him, in Duba governorate.

- Visiting Dissa.

- Visiting Shaqraa, Arwa area and its mountains, such as what some call (the Sad Mountain).

- Performing some activities and adventures, as well as climbing and jumping across ropes, which was carried out by the (APEX) group.

- Raise the Saudi flag and congratulate the 90th National Day on the highest mountains in the Arwa region, in cooperation with the APEX Group to organize excursions, diving and adventures.

Among the information that the team found about the Tabuk region: 

Tabuk City:

An Arab Asian city from the cities of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, administratively affiliated to the Emirate of Tabuk region, and ranks first among the cities in the north of the Kingdom in terms of area, with a land area of 780 km², and a height of 900 meters above sea level. 

The location and climate of the city of Tabuk:

It is located at a longitude of 28 degrees 49 minutes to the east of the Greenwich Line, and at a latitude of 36 degrees and 65 minutes north of the equator. 

Geographical location:

It is located in the northwestern side of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

The climate:

Its climate is characterized by its mild summer season, and cold rainy season in winter. 

Information about Tabuk:

The distance between Tabuk and Madinah is about 623.1 kilometers, and the journey between the two cities is approximately five hours and twenty-nine minutes. 

Its economy depends on:

The agricultural sector, such as the cultivation of wheat, fruits, roses, and flowers. The industrial sector, such as the cement industry, vegetables and fruits packing , and irrigation pipes. Poultry, sheep and cattle breeding sector.


Tourism sector:

It contains a number of tourist attractions, including: the ancient Tabuk Citadel, the blessed Ain al-Sukkar, the Tawbah Mosque, the Hejaz Railway Station, the Ibn Asi Equestrian and Heritage Center, the Kanani Heritage Museum, the Amwaj Park, the Prince Sultan Cultural Center, Abu Riyalain (Two Riyals) Market, the Al-Waqf Beach, and the King Khalid Sports City. Tabuk is the northern gateway to the Arabian Peninsula, and it is a route for pilgrims and pilgrims. Several festivals are held on its territory every year, such as the Spring Festival, the Cultural Forum, the Tabuk Advocacy Summer Camp, the Roses and Fruits Carnival, the Agricultural Festival, and the Shopping Festival.

It contains a number of tourist attractions, including: the ancient Tabuk Citadel, the blessed Ain al-Sukkar, the Tawbah Mosque, the Hejaz Railway Station, the Ibn Asi Equestrian and Heritage Center, the Kanani Heritage Museum, the Amwaj Park, the Prince Sultan Cultural Center, Abu Riyalain Market, the Al-Qouf Beach, and the King Khalid Sports City. Tabuk is the northern gateway to the Arabian Peninsula, and it is also a route for pilgrims and pilgrims. Several festivals are held on its territory every year, such as the Spring Festival, the Cultural Forum, the Tabuk Advocacy Summer Camp, the Roses and Fruits Carnival, the Agricultural Festival, and the Shopping Festival.

Tabuk includes many governorates: Al-Wajh, Al-Bida, Duba, Tayma, and Haql. And neighborhoods such as Qurtuba neighborhood, Industrial Nozha, Al Akhdar, New Azizia, Al-Masyaf, Al-Faisaliah Al-Shamaliyah, and Al-Rawda. Roads such as Tabuk Al-Ula Road, Tabuk Sakaka Road, Tabuk Madinah Highway, Tabuk Tayma Road, and Tabuk Duba Road. Streets such as Imam Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab Street, Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq Street, Sulaiman Al-Sudairy Street, and Muhammad bin Ahmed Al-Khatib Street 

Tabuk historical Castle and Ain Al Sukkar:

Tabuk Castle was established in the Abbasid era, then it was rebuilt in the era of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent in 967 AH / 1599 CE, and rebuilt during the era of Sultan Muhammad IV in 1064 AH / 1653 CE. Renovation work was recorded on ceramic tiles above the entrance arch, and the history of this castle dates back more than 3500 years. 

Sultan Muhammad Khan ordered the renewal and reconstruction of the Tabuk Citadel  , then the castle was renewed in 1260 AH / 1844 CE during the era of Sultan Abdul Majeed Khan bin Mahmoud who wrote on that occasion an inscription placed over the mihrab of the Citadel Mosque .. In the Saudi era, the castle’s architecture was renewed in 1370 AH / 1950 CE. 

Next to the castle is a semi-circular pool called “Ain al-Sukkar” . Its history is related to the Battle of Tabuk, that the Prophet, Peace be upon him , led, and the army camp was located around it. It was mentioned in the noble hadith that the Messenger, may  peace be upon him, said to Muadh, may God be pleased with him: (Muadh, you if God prolonged your age , you  are about to see this area  full of gardens.) 

The Supreme Commission for Tourism, Tabuk Branch, prepared and developed the area surrounding the castle, where an ornamental fence was placed around the ponds and spring area "Ain al-Sukkar", a gate for entry, corridors were paved, places to sit inside the castle, and visitors were introduced to the importance and position of this castle. 

The Supreme Commission for Tourism, in cooperation with the Antiquities Office in Tabuk region, organizes trips to Tabuk Castle. A number of intellectuals and writers visited this castle, as well as European groups that visit the region to see the region’s antiquities, including this castle, in which many photograph inside This castle, which includes the prison mosque, a well, and guest rooms in the past 

It has the creativity of construction and the beauty of the distinctive architectural style with hollow stones from the inside, which consists of three floors that can be accessed through stairs built of stones and fitted  with openings that were used in the past for observation, and next to this castle is  «Ain al-Sukkar» spring which  witnesses  to the invasion of Tabuk, which is considered the most famous and the oldest is in Tabuk . «Ain al-Sukkar» was the only source of watering and irrigation for agriculture around the castle.


Al-Muadam Historical Castle and Pool:

It is a wide well designed pool built with stone, plaster, so that torrents enter it from the four sides on rainy days, and water lasts for a period. It was built by the great king of (Aleppo) for pilgrims. 

In the year 1040 AH, Muhammad Kabrit al-Musawi al-Madani passed by with the caravan of Hajj al-Sham, and he said: Then we came to al-Al-Muadam , which is a valley in which an Ottoman casstle was built in s thirty-one and a thousand years old, but there was no water in that castell, and I was about to die, in this regard, some of them say: Oh, the great! you have  cruelty ... so for what reason  you have been nicknamed the great? The great is the one who help his visitors... I see that you about to kill those people because of thirst. then at the castle there is a great and very wide pool, the water comes to it from the rain, and it has twenty-five degrees, when we came to it we found fifteen degrees of it in the fresh water. 

Haji Khalifa 1045 AH says: 

Al-Muadam pond:

It is a large basin built to be filled with torrential water and to remain empty when the rains ceased. 

Description of the pond

When we visited it in 1427: The pond is square and the length of the side is 60 meters, the pond is deep. We could not measure the depth because it was half-full of water, and the camel shepherd told us that this is a remnant of the torrent last year! There is a stone staircase going down to the pool.


In general, Al-Muadam pond is still in excellent condition and still serves the purpose of its existence, but the funny thing is that the Bedouins still benefit from it, there is a motor to draw water to water camels. One of  the reasons for building the great castle in the year 1031 AH is to protect the pool from spoilers and to be an oasis of supply in the difficult wilderness that was called the Great Mafaza Between Tabuk and Al-Ula, but unfortunately, this castle has not succeeded, and I think that one of the most important reasons is that the well and the pool depend on rain, so if it dries up, the guards of the castle are left with  no  source of water, just as the castle is far from any metropolis or country, so its guards are at the mercy of the Bedouins after the return of the Hajj caravan It was abandoned and only used a few years dispersed over the four centuries that represent its age.


Hejaz railway line:

It was previously extended, originally designed to speed up the travel of Muslim pilgrims from Damascus to the holy cities of Mecca and Medina, but it ended up in ruins within less than two decades after its inception. Its remains covered in sunlight can be seen today, as it goes through northwestern Saudi Arabia in the form of dusty and sand-covered railways line, deserted stations and rusted locomotives.


The railway was originally created to link Constantinople and the Hijaz region in Saudi Arabia, the home to Islam's holiest sites, and shorten the journey of pilgrims performing the Hajj. The line, which began in 1900, had extended 1,600 kilometers from Syria to Medina by 1908, although the last planned station to Mecca was never established.

During World War I, portions of the line were attacked by Thomas Edward Lawrence and his Arab allies and by 1918, less than two decades after the start of the project, the railroad had been converted into rubble. The route was unofficially abandoned by 1920.

Ruins of Hejaz Railway:

The largest part of the railway remains can be reached in Medina and Tabuk, where the largest stations of the line were constructed and have since been restored. The addition of locomotives and information centers helps visitors learn about the railway's short and sad history.

The museum, which is located in the station with an Edwardian architectural style, to see its treasures of artifacts, manuscripts and photographs from this era, some from the railroad era and others from earlier. In the far north of Tabuk, you will find one of the best preserved examples of a station, and it includes a restored locomotive, freight wagon, as well as other artifacts.

Prince Fahd Bin Sultan Avenue:

It is considered a cultural landmark in the city of Tabuk and an important commercial center that witnesses a very large commercial movement throughout the day, and the avenue is the main artery of the city of Tabuk, but rather of the Tabuk region, due to the presence of all that a person needs to shop, whether alone or with his family.

There are many clothing stores for men, women and children on the avenue, shops selling jewelry and luxuries, stores selling sports equipment, pharmacies, foodstuff stores, watch sales, perfumery stores, a number of restaurants, hotels, buffets, refreshment stores, children's play stores, public acquisitions, and headquarters for branches of major banks.

Prince Fahd Bin Sultan Avenue is located in the city center of Tabuk, where many neighborhoods of the city are located. This avenue was previously known as the Main Street. Its length extends nearly six hundred meters. Before that, this avenue witnessed the entry of cars and pedestrians, which caused the occurrence of many traffic accidents and violations that were disturbing Avenue goers.

Tayma Governorate

Located in the northwest of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, it contains ancient historical and archaeological treasures, and it is the cradle of successive human civilizations on the Arabian Peninsula, and a treasure trove of the kingdom’s antiquities treasures that have enjoyed wide global resonance, as a kingdom of antiquities dating back more than 85 thousand years. Meanwhile, I found great interest from the state in the framework of the Kingdom's Vision 2030, and the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques' program to take care of the cultural heritage of the Kingdom.


The governorate of Tayma follows administratively the Tabuk region, away from the city of Tabuk at a distance of 265 kilometers to the southeast, while it lies between latitudes 27 and 38 degrees towards the north, and longitudes 38 and 32 degrees towards the east. Striking stone roots have its roots in the depths of the history of the Arabian Peninsula and the civilizations that followed it.

Throughout the ages, Taima was considered a commercial and economic center and a meeting point for the ancient trade routes in it. It possesses the abundance and purity of water, fertility of the soil and a moderate climate, which made ancient civilizations successive to it, starting from the modern stone ages "the tenth millennium until the end of the fourth millennium BC," through the Bronze Age. The third millennium BC, then the Iron Age, the second millennium BC, which is the era in which Taima flourished until it became one of the most important cities in the north of the Arabian Peninsula.

The name Taima was mentioned in the Assyrian cuneiform, Babylonian, Aramaic, and Nabatean writings, and it was an important focus in the Babylonian era, and the companion Yazid bin Abi Sufyan was appointed by the Messenger of Allah , and it was an important resource and starting point for the Islamic conquests. Taima passed through the Islamic era with events Several times, and they appeared and faded at times until the era of the Saudi state, where Taima began to grow, and witnessed successive prosperity in various levels, and its cultural and historical heritage gave it wide fame.

Tayma is characterized by the presence of historical landmarks and evidence such as: the "outer wall", which is one of the longest and most fortified historical walls in the Arabian Peninsula, with a length of more than 10 kilometers and a height in some of the remaining parts now more than 10 meters and the width of its wall between one and two meters, the wall was constructed in some of its parts with stones, and in other parts of clay and mud. The period of building the wall dates back to the sixth century BC, as well as the Alhambra Palace, which is a building with three sections, the first is a temple and the others are for housing, one of them was built within the period of the temple and then the southern part of the palace was added during a later period that was revealed in 1979 AD, one of its most important remains is an obelisk bearing an Armenian script and a cubic stone containing various scenes and symbols. The palace dates back to the sixth century BC.

Among the most important monuments of Tayma is also the "Qasr Al-Radham", which is a square fortress in the middle of which is a well constructed of polished stones and has pillars in its corners and in the middle of its external sides  and the width of its wall is about two meters and dates back to the middle of the first millennium BC.


Haddaj well is one of the most famous wells known to the ancient world and dates back to the middle of the sixth century of the first millennium BC. During its history the well was subjected to several events during which it ceased to exist, but its features remained until it was re-dug nearly 400 years ago to return to work and giving, and continue in The place was supplied with water by Camels until the year 1373 H.

Tayma also includes the “village” site, which is a large site with an area of more than 300 hectares and contains many urban landmarks constructed from stones, palaces, civil buildings and agricultural facilities such as wells, irrigation canals and various facilities. The site contains burials from the Armenian period; in addition to being fortified. This area has an inner and outer wall, topped by watchtowers, which are concentrated on the southern and western sides.

Excavations at these sites revealed important scientific results, including the discovering of parts of the main hill, whose findings show the existence of multiple settlement stages, and many buildings and facilities emerged from it, as parts of the wall and adjacent structures were uncovered. The results of the construction analysis showed that the wall returns Date of creation returns to the nineteenth century BC.

In addition to the above, a number of early and late Cuneiform, Thamudic, Aramaic, Nabataean and Islamic inscriptions and writings, as well as pottery tools with distinctive decorative characteristics, parts of human and animal statues, decorative elements, coins and stone carvings such as incense burners, crowns and other archaeological materials were found.

One of the most important architectural monuments in Taima is Al-Samawal Palace, "Al-Ablaq Al Fard", which gained wide fame, and the heritage sources talked extensively about it. It is located in the southern part of the old city of Tayma to the north of the new headquarters of the buildings of Tayma Governorate, and its construction is attributed to Adaya, the first ancestor of Al-Samawal. The fortress was mentioned in many books of the ancient Arabs, and among those mentioned by Yaqut al-Hamwi, about whom he says: “It is on his mound of dirt in which there are traces of his construction of milk that do not indicate what is said about it of greatness and immunity

Historian Hamad Al-Jasser - may God have mercy on him - commented on what Yaqout al-Hamwi mentioned, saying: “It appears that Yaqoot did not see these relics, but he transmitted their description without an expert, and this is why he made a mistake as the monuments of the fortress and a view are still remaining and it is built of stones and not of mud and its effects. Denotes greatness and strength. "

The poet Al-Asha has a poem in the description of Al-Ablaq Palace that says: (It is looks like dessert to in the sky,  it has tiles, circles, lime and trenches) and in the second verse (it has dashes and rashes in its top and has the scent of Musk and basil and a clapping hand ...)

Among the building features in Tayma governorate is the pottery brick factory located inside the new residential area and dating back to the second century BC, and Al-Bajidi Palace is a landmark of the early Islamic period, and the palace is a square shape with towers in its corners, and some parts of its walls bearing a number of The Arabic texts documenting its historical period, and Rjum Sa`sa, located south of Tayma, over a large area of ​​27 square kilometers, which is a field of various pile tombs, dating back to the third millennium BC, and the excavations in some of these cemeteries led to the knowledge of construction details And its architectural patterns in it.

The effects discovered in the industrial zone south of Tayma, for a distance of 4 km, to fields of cemeteries in the form of groups or separate burials, are identical in what differs in size and purpose, what we find are burial fields in the form of images and excavations of uses, pottery, bronze, pottery tools and decorative tools for competitions, Façades, pottery and bronze, distinctive Christmas facades and sciences.

The effects discovered in the industrial zone south of Tayma, extending for 4 km, indicated that they are fields of cemeteries in the form of groups or separate burials and are almost identical in terms of style and construction material, but they often differ in size and often we find them are square or rectangular rooms built Above the surface of the earth, and connected to a circular building not used for burial, in addition to the patterns and important architectural elements of these tombs, the excavations revealed the discovery of large numbers of distinctive pieces that included various pottery utensils and tools in their uses, pottery and bronze statues, jewelry and decorative tools dating back to the sixth century BC.

Tayma is famous for  Jabal Ghoneim, which is located southeast of Tayma, 10 kilometers in a mountain range that extends around Tayma through its southeastern corner, and on the top of the mountain are traces of a destroyed building and on the rocky facades. The hills and the erected columns, and among the most important of its sites are Jabal Ghoneim, Wadhi, the western and eastern fading, al-Mashmarkh, al-Safat al-Maradah, al-Fadu, al-Maktaba, Umm Saraf, Hajjah Tayma, Tawil Saeed, Gharan al-Majdar, and many others.

A number of cuneiform inscriptions dating back to the sixth and eighth centuries BC were also found in Taima, and as in bygone eras, the site of Tayma Governorate, with its legacy, antiquities and ancient history, remained a distinct geographical location over the succession of civilizations, eras and states, starting from the era of human stability starting with the Stone Age and then the Bronze Age Then the Iron Age, then the pre-Islamic era, which is represented by the Samawal period, then the Islamic era, passing through its multiple periods and even recent ages, and from there to the era of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in its three stages 

Since the unification of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia at the hands of King Abdulaziz bin Abdul Rahman Al Saud - may God have mercy on him - passing through the righteous kings - may God have mercy on them - until the era of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud - may God protect him - the antiquities, tourism and heritage sector has received the attention of the state for what the Kingdom possesses Of the heritage, enormous archaeological treasures, rare historical sites and monuments dating to ancient and great cultures and successive civilizations throughout the ages, which highlights the historical position of the Kingdom and its cultural depth as the cradle of the beginnings of human civilizations, and reflects its authentic civilization and its position on the global level, making it the destination of archaeologists, history, research and exploration teams and excavation teams Of different nationalities from worldwide East and West.

Tayma governorate gained a unique geographical location that increased its importance, as it is the largest governorates in the Tabuk region and the link between the region, the Medina region, the Hail region and the Al-Jawf region. The hand of Saudi development in all economic and agricultural fields, public education and university education was built in it and the latest hospitals were built and health services were developed. Connecting it to other cities, centers and villages in the Kingdom with modern methods, and Taima Al Madinah and the governorate, like other governorates in Tabuk region, received the unlimited support of His Royal Highness Prince Fahd bin Sultan bin Abdulaziz, Governor of Tabuk region, Chairman of the Tourism Development Council in the region, for everything that would advance the province of Tayma and highlight its components His Highness is keen to make an annual tour to Tayma Governorate, through which he is reassured of the services provided to citizens, and His Highness perceives their needs and demands, and stands on restoration projects.

Prince Fahd bin Sultan worked to support the implementation of a number of projects in the region, the most prominent of which was his directive to implement the “King Saud Project for the Restoration of the Haddaj Well” with Tayma and financing it from his own account. The Haddaj Well is one of the largest and most famous wells in the Arabian Peninsula. It is "Sheikh Al-Jawiyyah", and its mouth circumference is 65 meters, its depth is from 11 to 12 meters, and it is built of polished stones, surrounded by palm trees on the four sides. The well draws 100 camels at one time during the summer, while water is transported from The well is by means of stone channels totaling 31 stone channels

And when King Saud Al Saud - may God have mercy on him - visited the city of Tayma in the year 1373 AH, he  he had a look at the historic Haddaj well and saw the extent of the suffering of the people in extracting water. He ordered the installation of four modern machines to change the situation since that day in this well for the better, after which the productivity increased and expanded according to that area. The facilities provided to farmers had their role in enabling each farmer to have a well inside his farm with more productivity and easier means, and because of these wells that were dug deeper around the Haddaj well, this led to a shortage in the well's water and decreased its productivity of water as the people’s need for well water began to decrease. It was neglected, and its architectural components and facilities were vandalized.

In view of the historical and architectural importance of this well, His Royal Highness Prince Fahd bin Sultan bin Abdulaziz took the initiative to restore the well and restore it to the state it was in and rehabilitate it to be an important tourist landmark that plays a cultural and economic role and returned to its normal position in the same manner as in folding the well and paving the edges of the well and then laying a fence Iron to prevent any encroachment or throwing waste into it, and it has become a tourist attraction in the region that is intended by many visitors and tourists from inside and outside the Kingdom

Under the leadership of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, and His Highness, the trustworthy Crown Prince - may God bless them - the Kingdom seeks to develop valuable and distinctive tourism with social, cultural, environmental and economic benefits, based on its Islamic values and the authenticity of its ancient heritage and traditional hospitality.

The "Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques Program for the Care of the Kingdom's Cultural Heritage" is an important national historical project that reflects the development of heritage programs and projects in the Kingdom. It covers several tracks of national projects such as antiquities, museums, urban heritage, crafts and handicrafts, awareness and introduction to cultural heritage, and the development of urban and archaeological heritage sites.

The Kingdom's Vision 2030, which was outlined by His Royal Highness Prince Mohammed bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, Crown Prince, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defense, placed the Saudi Arabian and Islamic historical cultural heritage as an important title for it, to emphasize the importance of preserving it as the Kingdom throughout history has been the seat For ancient human civilizations, and a bridge for trade routes that linked the world's civilizations to each other, which earned them a unique cultural diversity.

The vision promotes the issue of preserving the national identity, highlighting it, defining it, and transmitting it to generations, by instilling national principles and values, taking care of social upbringing and the Arabic language, establishing museums and events and organizing activities that enhance this aspect. And registering it internationally, and enabling everyone to access it as a living witness to our ancient heritage, its active role, and its prominent position on the map of human civilization.

The recent discovery announced by His Royal Highness Prince Sultan bin Salman bin Abdulaziz, Chairman of the Saudi Commission for Tourism and National Heritage, represented by the presence of ancient human footprints on the bank of an ancient lake in the Nafud desert on the outskirts of the Tabuk region is a surprising and very rare discovery that shows the extent of the spread of the human being on the island Arabic is within the areas of human migrations that occurred thousands of years ago, and was reported by various scientific and media circles on the global level.

His Highness explained in a previous interview that the age of the footprints match with a sane person's finger fossil recently found near the Al-Wusta site in Tayma Governorate, dating back 85,000 years. Green pastures rich in rivers, lakes, fresh water and abundance of animals that were a source of food for humans

The role of the General Authority for Tourism and National Heritage was not limited to exploration, research, discoveries, and attracting local and international missions in the province of Tayma, but went beyond it to allocate an amount of approximately 34 million Riyals for the project to develop the Taima Regional Museum


Duba: Dhaba is called the Jewel of the Red Sea because it embraces the most beautiful beaches in the world, as it is characterized by the purity and clarity of its shores, and the city of Duba was famous in the past because of the safety that the world's ships find on its ports, and this is why a visitor to Duba Governorate will discover the beauty of this area, in addition to the historical monuments that it embraces.

Duba location:

Duba is located in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and it is located specifically on the northwestern side of the Red Sea coast, that is, one hundred and eighty kilometers from Tabuk Governorate, which is administratively affiliated with the rule of this emirate.

Duba Governorates:

When heading from the center of Tabuk to the coastal city of Duba, it is necessary to travel a distance of one hundred and ninety kilometers, and it is surrounded by a number of governorates that are far away from it a good distance, and from these governorates are Al-Wajh Governorate and Al-Bada Governorate, which are one hundred and fifty kilometers from Duba. In addition, Haql governorate is two hundred and fifty kilometers away from Duba, and three hundred kilometers away from Umluj governorate. Tourism in Duba is a beautiful coastal area that has made it a tourist area that any visitor can go to so that he can enjoy the calmness of its beaches and the clear color of its waters. There are many hotels and chalets to enjoy these beautiful beaches, and beside the beaches, a person can head into the city and wander around its famous markets and old markets that offer a lot of different goods.

Landmarks and monuments of Duba:

King Abdulaziz Castle: This castle was named after King Abdulaziz who visited Duba and wandered in it, and chose a suitable place to build a castle that he would go to whenever he wanted to spend recreation time in Duba. This castle was built in 1931 on an elevated area overlooking the waters of the Red Sea. It still preserves the beauty of its construction until the present day, and the castle today is witnessing a movement of visitors to see this ancient castle.

Assakalah port:

The history of this port dates back to the Ottoman era, as it consisted of one berth, and during the era of King Abdulaziz Al Saud this berth was developed as its length extends into the sea about fifty meters, and the width of the berth is about twenty meters, and from the government departments adjacent to this berth is the customs building And the town hall is in addition to the financial building.

Duba Castle:

This castle was built in the era of the Turks and this castle is distinguished by the Turkish character, and this castle witnessed various government departments, as the castle was transferred to headquarters belonging to government departments because it was valid as a headquarters that allows the reception of official government transactions at that time, and today the castle of Duba or Duba is An abandoned and ancient castle suitable for receiving visitors to learn about the history of the castle, and it is mentioned that the castle was built by builders from Yanbu.

King Abdulaziz Castle in Duba:

King Abdulaziz Castle in Duba Governorate in Tabuk region is one of the most prominent historical landmarks in the region. It tells the history of the Saudi architecture in the northwest of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

About 90 years ago, the castle was built at the highest place in the Old City with a view of the market from the western side, to be a palace for government and security in the town of Duba, and was built by the local residents and architects from the townspeople, Al Wajh and Yanbu. The stones were brought to her at the beginning of the construction from the Al-Muwailih Castle by sailboats and from Burgan Island, and then modified from that, by bringing the building components from the quarries in the governorate, specifically from limestone

The castle is a spacious rectangular courtyard surrounded on its sides by a group of rooms and facilities and supported by four towers in the corners in the form of three quarters of the circle, and it has two entrances, one from the western side and the other from the eastern side, which is the main entrance, which is topped by a founding board written on it, built under the reign of King Abdulaziz 1352 AH. In addition to the presence of a mosque on the northern side of it.

In order to preserve the Castle, the Tourism and National Heritage Authority restored it at that time, and rehabilitated it to be a governorate antiquities museum that tells the civilization of the region, and one of its most important tourist routes.



Jabal al-Lawz:

Jabal al-Lawz is located in the city of Tabuk, in the northwest of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and close to the Jordanian border, and Jabal al-Lawz is one of the components of the Arab Shield, which is called (the mountains of Median). And that is according to the geographical name, and this mountain is the highest of the mountain ranges in the northwest side, which is an extension of the Sarawat Mountains, which extend from west of Tabuk to Wadi Rum, which is located inside the Jordanian lands, and it is noteworthy that this mountain chain produces a number of valleys that appear On the southern side, as well as the western side of the area.

Naming Jabal al-Lawz with this name:

The reason for naming Jabal al-Lawz with this name is attributed to almond trees, as the mountain is full of almond trees, and it is worth noting that these trees are still growing in it today, and there is also a valley named (Wadi al-Lawz), as well as a village named (al-Lawz), which represents Jabal al-Lawz. The highest mountain peaks in the Tabuk region, with a height above sea level of 2,583 meters.

Features of Jabal al-Lawz:

Jebel al-Lawz is characterized by its extreme cold, as it is the only mountain on which snow falls in the winter season, in many times this mountain is affected by depressions coming from the regions of the Levant, and these depressions are accompanied by cold air masses, coming from the polar regions, and the mountain is also distinguished by its containment Several archaeological places, where there are drawings engraved on its rocks, which date back to more than 10 thousand years BC, and also contains several Islamic inscriptions, and thus Jabal al-Lawz is a place to attract thousands of visitors to it, and it is one of the most important winter tourist places in the country. Where the General Tourism Authority has included Jabal al-Lawz among the tourist sites of great importance.

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