The World QPEDIA Encyclopedia visit to the Asir region: the first visit / Sarat Abidah Governorate Part2

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Sarat  Abidah Governorate 1

Sarat  Abidah Governorate is located in the north of Southern Dhahran Governorate, on a latitude of 18 degrees 4 minutes and a longitude of 43 degrees and 9 minutes. The area of the province is approximately 450 km2, its length is 120 km and its width is approximately 38 km, and the population of the governorate is approximately 63,000 thousand people distributed 277 villages and small communities , including Sarat.

Al-Bouta village  is considered the center of Sarat  Abidah Governorate, and the town of Sarat is 93 km away from the city of Abha and 40 km from Southern  Dhahran on the regional road, Khamis Mushayt - Najran - , Sarat  Abidah is surrounded by  a number of villages, and agricultural plains . Sarat  Abidah is considered one of the Important cities in Asir region, a number of valleys penetrate  Sarat  Abidah region   such as Wadi Al-Jouf, Wadi Khaddar and Wadi Al-Amal. Wadi Raghad and Wadi Al-Sarat. The people of Sarat  Abidah are affiliated with the Qahtan tribes, and the residents of Sarat  Abidah are distributed over a large number of villages. The Sarat community is distinguished as a pastoral,  agricultural and commercial community , and Sarat Ubaida is considered an administrative center in the region because of the presence of most government services in it. The town has been active after the planning process and after  municipality has asphalted its  streets .


The most famous Milestones of Sarat  Abidah Governorate are as follows:

The Heights overlooking Tihama Qahtan.

Tuhama Qahtan obstacle, which extends through the phases of Tihama Qahtan, which contains more than 23 tunnels through the mountains passing through it to the bottom of the phase.

Marhabain Garden located in the north of the governorate, to the left of the line leading to Al-Wahabah and Al-Muammar Jouf.

Zulm Mountain, which is located on the south of the main line that connects Sarat  Abidah and the city of Khamis Mushait, and has the highest point in the governorate, and rises (2350 m) above sea level.

Among the most famous of its landmarks are also Wadi Al-Serawi, Khamis Ubaidah Market and Karzan Park.

Sarat  Abidah governorate shares its administrative borders with the ٍSouthren Dhahran Governorate from the eastern side, with the Tathleeth Governorate from the northeastern side and from the north side, and with Uhud Rafaida governorate from the western side, and with Jazan region from the south side, and with Abha from the southwestern side.

The climate:

The climate of the governorate varies from mild to cold in winter in general, and the maximum temperature is 25 degrees in summer, and the minimum is 5 degrees in winter, and it has a rain precipitation rate of 200 mm, and the humidity rate reaches 45%, while the Tihama Qahtan area is characterized by hot summer and mild weather Winter.

The centers that under the area of Sarat  Abidah governorate are as follows:

1- Center of the Emirate of AL-Farsha :

Al-Farsha is located to the south of the center of al-Jawa, about 24 km from Sarat Ubaida, and about 122 km from Abha city, which is the main base for Tihama Qahtan or its metropolis. The Tihama area lies between high mountain ranges and large valleys that go from the slopes of the Sarawat Mountains in the west to the Red Sea, and the mountains constitute a natural obstacle between this region and the civilized areas in Sarawat, such as Southern Dhahran and Sarat  Abidah. The boundaries of the Tihama area are confined  to the following:

From the east, the inner Sarwat mountain range, in the southern Dhahran governorate. To the west are the administrative borders of the Al-Fatiha Center, and the Al-Raihat Governorate of Jizan. And from the south are the administrative borders of the tribes of Al-Talid, affiliated to the center of Al-Rabu'a, and the borders of the Emirate of Jabal Al-Hashar of the Jazan region. From the north, the center of al-Jawba al-Rabwah, and the administrative borders of Uhud Rafidah Governorate. And the people of this region as a wholeThey belong to the Qahtan tribes from the side of Bin Saad, and some of the Al-Jahdir tribes, all of whom are nomads within the borders and valleys and reefs of their administrative region, and they reach about (10962) people, distributed over (23) villages and immigration, and they graze goats and sheep, and deal with them in bartering, and costs Marriage due to lack of cash. And commercial activity is virtually non-existent, except for some simple groceries, and there is a weekly market that takes place on Friday at the headquarters of the administrative center, in which cereals, special clothing, and some types of livestock are displayed. In this region, the usual practical activity is equal for both men and women, but it differs, except that it is in relation to status and importance. So the man is considered to be the master of the situation,

The elderly are respected, for their life experience. The residents of this region boast about the possession of weapons, , and the skill in using them. As for agriculture, in spite of the presence of some areas suitable for their agricultural use, they do not practice it because of the lack of material capabilities  that help them to settle and reclaim the land. The per capita income in the beginning of the Tihama Qahtan decline to the lowest level  in relation to other regions. It does not exceed the ratio of (1 to 100) compared with the other regions


The population of the area is distributed over simple resources and desertion on the banks of Wadi Al-Farsha, Wadi Raha, Wadi Zabah, Wadi Athrib, Wadi Dafa and Wadi Bish. The Farasha Center overlooks a large area with an area of 8500 km2, and includes among its flanks a population of Al Badia estimated at about 25,000 people. Services are centralized in the Farasha Center, which is a police station, primary and middle schools, and boys and girls secondary school. There is a center for primary health care, and there is only one paved road between the center of the emirate and Abha via Al-Ajawa obstacle.

2- Al-Jawa Emirate Center

Al-Jawa Center  is located to the south of the Sarat  Abidah Governorate with a distance of (20) km, and to the northwest of the Dhahran Governorate with a distance of 55 km. It is bounded to the north by the borders of the Sarat  Abidah Governorate, to the south and west by the center of the Emirate of Al-Farshah, and to the east by the center of the Emirate of Al-Harijah. On an area of about (1605) km2, most of which are mountainous, slopes and of Tihama Qahtan interspersed with valleys and reefs pouring water in Wadi Al-Farsha, heading to the southwest. The most important of these valleys are Wadi Amas and Wadi Al-Jubail.

Most of the population that follows the emirate of Jawa is from Al Hayan , Al-Naier , Al-Faydhah , Al-Zenah , Al Massary , Al-Rabaa , Al-Hujail, Al-Thawab , and Al - Afya from Qahtan, and they are almost nomadic Bedouin   , except for some residents who practice grazing and livestock. Some of them practice the profession of agriculture, especially the tribes of the Al-Naier tribe in Mount Aden who grow some citrus fruits and coffee, all of which are simple crops within the limits of their meager capabilities.

They depend on rain water for irrigation and drinking  ,  and they work dykes in the foothills of the mountains, in the stomachs of reefs and valleys to preserve the rain water for the largest possible period of time, with the aim of securing drinking water for them and their livestock that is why they catch diseases because of using  Stagnant water for all uses. As for commercial activity, there is no, except some Simple shops to secure some foodstuffs, and the population of the center is estimated at (6462) people, distributed on (22) small communities

The administrative center of the ِAl-Jawa includes a border guards center, a Shari'a court, a post office, primary care centers, some general education schools, primary, middle and secondary schools for boys, a primary and middle school for girls, in addition to the maintenance  team  to maintain the dust  roads, and a center for religious advisers

3- Al-Erqueen  Emirate Center:

AL-Erqueen  Emirate Center is located in Bilad Zuhair, to the southeast of the city of Abha, with an estimated distance of (123) km, and from Sarat  Abidah (30) km. The center supervises a number of villages along Wadi Al-Erqeen, known as the Higer of Zuhair, bordered to the east by the center of Khanqa, to the west by the city of Sarat, to the south by the center of Al-Faid and Badia Al-Khwais, and to the north the center of Tareeb. The center covers a total area of about (3000 km2), which consists of rocky plateaux, penetrated by several valleys, and some fertile plains suitable for cultivation on the banks of these valleys.

The service center of the Emirate of Erqeen secures  a primary health care center, a post office, primary and intermediate schools for boys, and primary girls and intermediate schools for  girls as well.


4- Wadi Al-Hayaht Emirate Center.

The center region is bordered to the north by the center of Al-Farsha, to the south by the Jazan region, the center of Al-Rabua'a, to the west by the Jazan region, the Al-Rith Governorate, and to the east by the southern Dhahran region.

The majority of the population of Tihama Qahtan consists of tribes from Qahtan, and most of the residents of the center region are from the Khouzaim and Badia Al-Hassan , from the neighborhoods of Bin Saad. their population is  (3274) people, most of them nomadic Bedouin who follow the water sources  in the reefs and valleys  beyond the grass and feed, but within the boundaries of their region and their main profession Grazing and livestock raising.

Wadi Al Hayat Center has been linked to Al Farsha and Al Rabou  Center by paved roads, and work is still underway to connect it to the southern and western regions of the Jizan region. We also noted the laying of the foundation stone for 25 educational projects in the region by the Prince of the region, His Royal Highness Prince / Khaled Al-Faisal, This is evidenced by the special image of the foundation stone; it contains a health care center, a police station, and a number of projects that are still under construction by some investors in the region.

5- Al-Assran Center

The town of Al-Asran has enjoyed the opening of a center for the emirate, and work began in Al-Asran Center on 2/19/1428 AH. The center serves each of the following villages:

Al-Habib Village Al-Balhi Village Al-Harqan Village Municipal plans consisting of:

Al-Asran scheme and Al-Balahi scheme, Al-Asran Village, Al-Jabal Village, Othman Village, Al-Mohafeth Village, Al-Azem Village, Al-Sera'a Village, Ma`bala Village, and the total population of Al-Asran Center 9000 people.

Among the services in the mentioned villages are a post office in Asran, which has been excluded according to the organizational structure of the Saudi Post in 1439 AH, a health center, 3 Benin schools, 3 girls' schools, and also in that geographical area there is a water dam, a distribution office for desalinated water, and a division for Saudi wireless communications as well. There are 3 large mosques in that area, where Friday prayers are held, and there is a museum in the village of Shia to its owner, Professor / Muhammad bin Ahmed bin Mu'taq, a heritage teacher for all visitors and tourists from inside and outside the region. There are also ancient heritage villages in the old architectural style. The center is bordered to the north by a village beginning Love you B and the neighborhood and Sarat  Abidah governorate and from the south at the end of the village of Maasala Bani Bishr and the mountains of Tihama and from the east the paved road leading to Hamalah , which penetrates Jabal Qarzan and his two suburbs the center of the Sabbath of Bani Bishr and from the west of Ain al-Liwi and the end of the Meshwak.

6- Kjashem Anqar Center

The population of Khashem Anqar is 3232 people, according to the latest statistic. There are no security departments in the center, and its security is covered by Al-Farasha Police Station

 The governmental departments in the center:

1- The vector disease  control unit

2- Secondary and intermediate Dirar bin Al-Azwar school and the elementary school of Ibn Al-Jawzi (boys) - and the primary and intermediate girls of Khushim Anqar.

3- Health care center

Governmental departments affiliated with the center, and the area is covered by it / Al-Farsha Police Station - Civil Defense in Al-Farshah - Municipal of Al-Farshah - Roads and Transportation Branch of Al-Farshah - Education Office - Al-Farshah Hospital - Postal of the Farshah - Social Security of the Farshah - Dawaa and Guidance Bureau - The Commission for Religious advisers Farshah

Existing departments - Sarat  Abidah traffic department- Agriculture Branch at Sarat  Abidah

Administrative boundaries of the center

It is bounded to the south by Jabal Al-Amad and separates the administrative borders with the center of Kahla

It is bordered to the north by Wadi Athrib and separates the administrative borders with the brush center

It is bordered to the east by Dhamoua, above the Valley of Zabah, and separates the administrative borders with the center of Rabouah

It is bordered to the west by Al-Laj barrier  to the bottom of Jabal Al-Amd to the south, and separates the administrative borders with Wadi al-Hayat Center and from the centers of Sarat  Abidah:

  • Ain Al-Lowa Center, which was established in 1429 H
  • The Syrian Center, which was founded in 1430 H
  • Sabt Bani Bishr Center, which was founded in 1428 H
  • Jouf Al Muammar Center, which was founded in 1431 H

The boundaries and nature of Tihama Qahtan in general:

This area was named after its inhabitants from the Qahtan tribes. It extends from the western slopes of Sadaa Wadaa and the southwestern slopes of Saraqat side in the east to Tuhama two months in the west, with a length of approximately (140) km, and from the slopes of Sarat Jana in the north to the borders of Jizan region in the south (Rabou'a and Al-Raith) with a distance of approximately (70) kilometers. It is a high mountain, and deep valleys. It is difficult to find a flat area suitable for residential planning or agriculture, except for some terraces for mountain farms at the foot of the mountains. The most common occupations of the population are livestock. And Tihama Qahtan houses some tribes of Janb bin Saad, who are the family of Masoud, the family of the fishermen, the family of the crow, the family of Masathen, the family of Hassan, the family of Khazim, every key, and all the lies of the beloved, and the family of Al-Nu'ir of the family of Hayyan. And with the accusation of Qahtan, two emirate centers, which are advanced development centers for Al Badia settlement, and providing educational, health and security services, they helped attract residents to settle around these two centers, namely the Farash Center and the Wadi Al Hayat Center.



A historical glance of the governorate:

At a historical glance about the governorate, it is worth talking about the following points

The researcher Ali bin Saad bin Hossasa mentioned in his speech before the delegation of the World QPedia: The Sarat  Abidah region has been aged by the glory of its history 'and witnessed that there is a 4000-year-old inscription in the Louvre Museum in Abu Dhabi, which gives an indication of the cultural and historical depth' it has inhabited Tribes of side Qahtaniya 'because it fertile soils and wide area good fruit' mountains pasture 'plains of shelter' and its fields with water irrigated.

And they called it a Sarat Ganb  before, as Sarat means the high land .

one of the historians, describing the tribes of Ganb Al-Qahtaniya tribe in the Sarat  Abidah region, they say: “Tribes with proportions and affiliation” and a high awareness  ”and the height of vigor and guidance” have merit and prestige. Jihad and fit for survival "and they also Great of Greater .

And those tribes are distributed in (277) villages on an area of (450) square kilometers, "quote is ended."

A - Reason for name (Sarat  Abidah Governorate):

The reason for calling it this name is due to its famous market, Khanees Ubaidah, which is a weekly market that takes place every Thursday in the center of the city of Sarat  Abidah, which was called Al-Bouta. It is an old market that was guarded by the Al-Saqr tribes and the Al Muammar tribes, and it had two locations, one in the village of Al-Quraiha, and the Muammar tribe protected him for a period of six months, then the market moved to (Al-Haima) in the village of Al Abbas, which is the second location, and protected by the Al Saqr tribe . Marketers and merchants had trouble moving between the aforementioned places, so the two tribes responsible for market security met, and they agreed to define an intermediate location between the two tribes in a village inhabited by all the hawks (al-Jabra and al-Aziyah), and also inhabited by all Muammar (al-Mahamid) and (al-Namla) , Which is the village of Al-Boutah, which later became the nucleus of the expanded Saraya AbidaIts tenderness in this prosperous era, to include the Qur’an and the surly family, and some villages and straw.

B - Establishing the governorate:

In Sarat  Abidah, the emirate established the first thing that was established in 1367 AH as a center supervised by (Ibrahim Al Suwaid). However, this information is not documented, as it is approximately. However, as was repeated by some of the elderly in the region, (Abdullah bin Thaqfan) mentioned in his book Sarat  Abidah in the series This is my country that Sheikh (Saad bin Verdun) has benefited the Emirate of (Sarat  Abidah as a resident) after I asked him an affectionate question to a question from The Planning, Organization and Budget Department of the Emirate of Aseer inquired about the establishment of the emirate, and in response to that he said in his letter to the emirate that in the year 1366 AH the first emirate center was established in Sarat  Abidah headed by a person called (Nayef), and after a year from that date he was called by another person Hammoud Al-Nayef) is an agent of the Sarat Ubaida Center And after seven months of his appointment, Ibrahim Al-Suwaid was appointed as the head of Sarat  Abidah to 7/2/1368 AH. Then after him  (Turki Al-Yami) was appointed , and then the characters continued until they reached the current governor, Mr. Saud Al-Tohami.

The governorate of Sarat  Abidah has been governed , since its foundation,by  princes and governors, according to what we have reported from Sarat  Abidah governorate in a statement on that on October 19, 2019:

Shuosh al-Daihi, Ibrahim al-Suwaid, Turki Aba Numy, Othman al-Faris, Sultan al-Anqari, Abd al-Rahman al-Mishari, Sultan al-Anqari, Muhammad al-Fawzan, Sa`id ibn Khathlan, Turki al-Madi, Abdullah ibn al-Dima al-Shahrani, Sa`id ibn Imran, Sa`id ibn Atef al-Shihri, Ahmad ibn Husayn al-Sharif, Sa`ud al-Sha`māni, Muhammad ibn Husayn al-Sharif, Sa`ud al-Sha`māni, Muhammad ibn Husayn al-Sharif, Sa`ud al-Sha`māni, Muhammad ibn Husayn al-Sharif, Sa`ud al-Sha`māni, Muhammad ibn Husayn al-Sharif, Sa`ud al-Sha`māni and Muhammad Saad Al-Mar'i and Ali bin Ibrahim Al-Faqih, who holds the position of the governor of Sarat  Abidah, the moment we prepared our research for this research, Mr. Muhammad bin Saeed bin Jazwa. , Who kindly provided all the facilities and support to the delegation of 1440 AH / 12 / World Cupidia Encyclopedia during their visit to the Governorate on 12/3/1440 AH

The center started as a small services center, and then it grew until it reached a governorate that has a leading role in overseeing everything related to the tribes surrounding it, an important role that requires finding a modern building for the governorate, and it requires finding several employees. Thus, the development included the governorate in the founding, in the role, and in the service of a large segment of citizens who are reviewing it to eliminate everything related to them and their interests.

C- Police station

The police was established in 1372 H as a police station (Sarat  Abidah Police Station), headed by an excellent agent assisted by eight individuals. As a result of the tremendous development in the region, and the large number of its residents, that center has evolved into a large division, to which the number of five centers is attributed (the race center, the mattress center, the Rabwa center, the Wadi al-Hayat center, and the al-Jawa center), and three security points are followed by it (the security point in the air) , The security point in Ain al-Liwi, and the security point in Al-Haydab); in addition to a number of security patrols. The section contains a number of officers, officers, and soldiers. All of them continue to serve the country and citizens, especially in the sector over which the governorate was published. Therefore, the boundaries of the division are those of the governorate.

D-The Court

Given that the Sarat  Abidah sector includes many districts, the establishment of the court was previously the emirate and the police. The court was established in the year 1350 H under the chairmanship of Sheikh (Nasser Abdul Rahman bin Ja`wan). Due to its importance, it has taken on several competent judges, like other Sharia courts in other governorates. Due to the large number of cases and lawsuits received by the court, an assistant judge was appointed in it, and many employees and the administrative apparatus became in it, in addition to a second judge in the court; he also follows them (notary). The Sharia court in Sarat  Abidah has an official domicile.

E- Civil Affairs:

To combat the crowding of citizens on civil affairs offices in Abha and Khamis Mushait, the Civil affairs Department was established in the Sarat  Abidah governorate in late 1407 AH, to serve citizens across the governorate, and the adjacent areas (Sarat  Abidah, Al Arqeen, Al Jawha, Al Farasha, and Wadi Life, Wadi Al-Faid, Al-Riqin, and Al-Mudhah). Thus, this department made great efforts to serve the Emirates and its villages.

F- Social Security:

In the interest of the state on social solidarity and caring for those who deserve care, social security offices have been established in places in the Kingdom, and among these regions, the Sarat  Abidah area. The Social Security Office was opened in 1401 H  to follow up the conditions of those who deserve aid and assistance in each of  the Belad Obaidah , and Bani Besher.

G- Red Crescent

Due to the fact that Sarat  Abidah  is a link between Dhahran Al-Janoub and the city of Khamis Mushait, and because it is located on a fast (international) line, the necessity of finding this important vital facility that serves this vast area is due to the large number of its visitors, thus increasing accidents.

H-Youth Welfare

Since Sarat  Abidah governorate has a high population density, and therefore an increase in the number of young people who need care and attention, especially culturally and athletically, it has been approved to establish Al-Fursan Club under the supervision of the General Presidency for Youth Welfare, which is taken from Sarat  Abidah as its headquarters and many youth joins it  to practice various sports.


Agriculture and water branch in Sarat  Abidah

Brief Idea about the branch:

The branch of Agriculture and Water (in Surat Ubaidah) was opened in (1385 H). The branch is located in Surat Ubaidah in the city of Surat, which is the administrative center. The approximate area covered by the branch with services (2 km):

The branch serves an area starting from north to south with a length of (200) km and from east to west with a length of (80) km, where the area is. Approximate (16,000) km

The approximate number of agricultural holdings:

Agricultural holdings served by the branch are estimated at approximately (19,000) holdings.

Number of farmers served by the branch:

The branch serves approximately 2300 farmers.

Projects that fall within the scope of branch services (water projects, wells, agricultural projects):

A- Water Projects:

There are 3 water projects in the branch services area.

B- Wells:

The number of (8) wells were drilled equipped with pumps and pipes.

C- Agriculture Projects:                                                                                         

The branch services includes the number of (2) Poultry projects, one is productive and the is

second is under construction.


The services rendered to the farmers by the branch various sections:

The branch includes several sections, including the following:


Guidance and prevention:

It is responsible for trimming and grafting the fruitful trees, following up the Guiding fields, providing guiding services, studying the demands of agricultural workers, and spraying and controlling agricultural pests.



Medication of sick livestock, vaccination against communicable and Infectious diseases, and educating livestock keepers with modern methods of breeding.



Study requests for possession documentation, study requests for converting lands from agricultural to residential, participation of government committees related to lands.



Follow-up for operating and maintenance of drinking water and dams projects contractors , following up the works of watering contractors, studying requests for establishing water projects, and securing drinking water through tankers.



The branch supervises beekeepers and guide them to modern methods of breeding and replacing modern cells in place of traditional cells, for easy examine of bees and increased honey production.



Preserving the natural forests from encroaching upon them, and monitoring and directing the forest guards to preserve this important wealth.

Municipal services:

The civilization of nations is measured by its progress in various fields. Because one of the most important areas in which these civilizations measure urban and population progress, this situation required the establishment of a replacement in Sarat  Abidah to perform great services that serve the residents of the province, and its surroundings, and its services extend to the entire borders of the province. So she made plans in the villages, and made improvements inside Sarat  Abidah city, especially in terms of organization and coordination. It has done everything necessary to make Sarat  Abidah governorate more organized, to reflect an important urban image and urban renaissance, in terms of organization and coordination in plans, public streets and other important services. It also applied building regulations and follow-up.

The Sarat  Abidah municipality was established in 1396 H, and its services were limited to (Al-Bouta) only, then its services went beyond the Sarat ,Al- Erqeen , Al-Waja, Al-Farsha , and Wady Al-Haya. The municipality in the governorate of Sarat Ubaida is a class (R), and it belonged to the municipality of Abha, then the municipality of one of Rafidah, then became independant ,  and the municipality has some branches in each of (Al-Erqeen and Al-Farsha) established by self-efforts, and they are affiliated to the municipality as one of its divisions.

المصادر :

زيارة الموسوعة العالميّة - كيوبيديا لمنطقة عسير : الزيارة الأولى / محافظة سراة عبيدة الجزء الرابع
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